The influence of intrapatch experiences and temperature on the time allocation of the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)

H.J.W. van Roermund, L. Hemerik, J.C. van Lenteren

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Abstract

The effect of experiences, such as contact with honeydew, rejections of hosts, and ovipositions in hosts, and of temperature on the time allocation of individualEncarsia formosa female parasitoids on tomato leaflets have been studied. Behavioral records were analyzed by means of the proportional hazards model. Analyses were carried out at two levels: (1) the tendency of leaving and (2) the tendency of changing from one leaf side to another. The patch-leaving behavior ofE. formosa can be described by a stochastic threshold mechanism, which is characterized by a certain tendency (probability per time) to leave. The median time from being placed on the leaflet or, if it occurred, from the latest encounter with a host until leaving was 18.6 min. The median time for changing from one leaf side to the other was initially 11.6 min and dropped to 5.7 min after both leaf sides had been visited. The effect of temperature, ranging from 20 to 30°C, was negligible. The presence of honeydew as well as the first oviposition in an unparasitized host decreased the tendency to leave, thus increasing the giving up time (GUT) since the latest encounter with a host. Encounters with parasitized hosts did not affect the GUT since latest encounter; as a result, the total residence time increased. After the first oviposition in an unparasitized host the tendency of changing from the lower leaf side on which hosts were present to the upper side was decreased. The presence of honeydew did not affect the tendency of changing leaf sides
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)483-501
JournalJournal of Insect Behavior
Volume7
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1994

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