The impact of freeze-drying, blanching and freezing rate pre-treatments on the microstructure and on the rehydration properties of winter carrots were studied by µCT, SEM, MRI and NMR techniques. The freezing rate determines the size of ice crystals being formed that leave pores upon drying. Their average size (determined by µCT) can be predicted in a quantitative manner by considering dendritic growth and freezing rates. Blanching as a pre-treatment, however, did not affect pore size distribution induced by freeze-drying. Upon rehydration of the freeze-dried carrots, PFG NMR and MRI show that cellular compartments were not restored and instead a porous network with permeable barriers is formed. Blanching pre-treatment introduced a less connected and more anisotropic porous network if followed by fast freezing, indicating that more of the native cell wall morphology is preserved.
- apple tissue
- ice crystals
- tip radius
Voda, A., Homan, N., Witek, M., Duijster, A., van Dalen, G., van der Sman, R. G. M., Nijsse, J., van Vliet, L. J., van As, H., & van Duynhoven, J. P. M. (2012). The impact of freeze-drying on microstructure and rehydration properties of carrot. Food Research International, 49(2), 687-693. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.08.019