The hidden costs of multi-use at sea

E. Ciravegna*, L. van Hoof, C. Frier, F. Maes, H.B. Rasmussen, A. Soete, S.W.K. van den Burg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


As ocean space increasingly is used for production purposes, such as for the production of food and feed, renewable energy and resource mining, competition for space becomes a concern. A spatial solution to this is to co-locate activities in a multi-use setting. Next to the direct (financial) costs and benefits of multi-use and the societal cost and benefits, there are other factors, in the realm of legal aspects, insurance, health and safety issues and the overall governance of multi-use, that determine whether multi-use can be implemented successfully. This includes transaction costs that arise when for example non-adequate regulation, governance and insurance schemes are in place. Based on the analysis of five case studies across Europe these combined/collective transaction costs of multi-use are analysed and suggestions how to reduce and/or overcome these transaction costs are presented.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106017
JournalMarine Policy
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Governance
  • Marine multi-use
  • Transaction costs


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