The heterothallic sugarbeet pathogen Cercospora beticola contains exon fragments of both MAT genes that are homogenized by concerted evolution

M.D. Bolton, R. de Jonge, P. Inderbitzin, Z. Liu, K. Birla, Y. Van de Peer, K. Subbarao, B.P.H.J. Thomma, G. Secor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Dothideomycetes is one of the most ecologically diverse and economically important classes of fungi. Sexual reproduction in this group is governed by mating type (MAT) genes at the MAT1 locus. Self-sterile (heterothallic) species contain one of two genes at MAT1 (MAT1-1-1 or MAT1-2-1) and only isolates of opposite mating type are sexually compatible. In contrast, self-fertile (homothallic) species contain both MAT genes at MAT1. Knowledge of the reproductive capacities of plant pathogens are of particular interest because recombining populations tend to be more difficult to manage in agricultural settings. In this study, we sequenced MAT1 in the heterothallic Dothideomycete fungus Cercospora beticola to gain insight into the reproductive capabilities of this important plant pathogen. In addition to the expected MAT gene at MAT1, each isolate contained fragments of both MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 at ostensibly random loci across the genome. When MAT fragments from each locus were manually assembled, they reconstituted MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 exons with high identity, suggesting a retroposition event occurred in a homothallic ancestor in which both MAT genes were fused. The genome sequences of related taxa revealed that MAT gene fragment pattern of Cercospora zeae-maydis was analogous to C. beticola. In contrast, the genome of more distantly related Mycosphaerella graminicola did not contain MAT fragments. Although fragments occurred in syntenic regions of the C. beticola and C. zeae-maydis genomes, each MAT fragment was more closely related to the intact MAT gene of the same species. Taken together, these data suggest MAT genes fragmented after divergence of M. graminicola from the remaining taxa, and concerted evolution functioned to homogenize MAT fragments and MAT genes in each species.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-54
JournalFungal Genetics and Biology
Volume62
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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Exons
Genes
Genome
Fungi
Reproduction
Population

Keywords

  • de-novo identification
  • sexual reproduction
  • neurospora-tetrasperma
  • molecular-organization
  • fungal pathogens
  • loci
  • systems
  • recombination
  • resistance
  • tool

Cite this

Bolton, M.D. ; de Jonge, R. ; Inderbitzin, P. ; Liu, Z. ; Birla, K. ; Van de Peer, Y. ; Subbarao, K. ; Thomma, B.P.H.J. ; Secor, G. / The heterothallic sugarbeet pathogen Cercospora beticola contains exon fragments of both MAT genes that are homogenized by concerted evolution. In: Fungal Genetics and Biology. 2014 ; Vol. 62. pp. 43-54.
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title = "The heterothallic sugarbeet pathogen Cercospora beticola contains exon fragments of both MAT genes that are homogenized by concerted evolution",
abstract = "Dothideomycetes is one of the most ecologically diverse and economically important classes of fungi. Sexual reproduction in this group is governed by mating type (MAT) genes at the MAT1 locus. Self-sterile (heterothallic) species contain one of two genes at MAT1 (MAT1-1-1 or MAT1-2-1) and only isolates of opposite mating type are sexually compatible. In contrast, self-fertile (homothallic) species contain both MAT genes at MAT1. Knowledge of the reproductive capacities of plant pathogens are of particular interest because recombining populations tend to be more difficult to manage in agricultural settings. In this study, we sequenced MAT1 in the heterothallic Dothideomycete fungus Cercospora beticola to gain insight into the reproductive capabilities of this important plant pathogen. In addition to the expected MAT gene at MAT1, each isolate contained fragments of both MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 at ostensibly random loci across the genome. When MAT fragments from each locus were manually assembled, they reconstituted MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 exons with high identity, suggesting a retroposition event occurred in a homothallic ancestor in which both MAT genes were fused. The genome sequences of related taxa revealed that MAT gene fragment pattern of Cercospora zeae-maydis was analogous to C. beticola. In contrast, the genome of more distantly related Mycosphaerella graminicola did not contain MAT fragments. Although fragments occurred in syntenic regions of the C. beticola and C. zeae-maydis genomes, each MAT fragment was more closely related to the intact MAT gene of the same species. Taken together, these data suggest MAT genes fragmented after divergence of M. graminicola from the remaining taxa, and concerted evolution functioned to homogenize MAT fragments and MAT genes in each species.",
keywords = "de-novo identification, sexual reproduction, neurospora-tetrasperma, molecular-organization, fungal pathogens, loci, systems, recombination, resistance, tool",
author = "M.D. Bolton and {de Jonge}, R. and P. Inderbitzin and Z. Liu and K. Birla and {Van de Peer}, Y. and K. Subbarao and B.P.H.J. Thomma and G. Secor",
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language = "English",
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pages = "43--54",
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The heterothallic sugarbeet pathogen Cercospora beticola contains exon fragments of both MAT genes that are homogenized by concerted evolution. / Bolton, M.D.; de Jonge, R.; Inderbitzin, P.; Liu, Z.; Birla, K.; Van de Peer, Y.; Subbarao, K.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Secor, G.

In: Fungal Genetics and Biology, Vol. 62, 2014, p. 43-54.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The heterothallic sugarbeet pathogen Cercospora beticola contains exon fragments of both MAT genes that are homogenized by concerted evolution

AU - Bolton, M.D.

AU - de Jonge, R.

AU - Inderbitzin, P.

AU - Liu, Z.

AU - Birla, K.

AU - Van de Peer, Y.

AU - Subbarao, K.

AU - Thomma, B.P.H.J.

AU - Secor, G.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Dothideomycetes is one of the most ecologically diverse and economically important classes of fungi. Sexual reproduction in this group is governed by mating type (MAT) genes at the MAT1 locus. Self-sterile (heterothallic) species contain one of two genes at MAT1 (MAT1-1-1 or MAT1-2-1) and only isolates of opposite mating type are sexually compatible. In contrast, self-fertile (homothallic) species contain both MAT genes at MAT1. Knowledge of the reproductive capacities of plant pathogens are of particular interest because recombining populations tend to be more difficult to manage in agricultural settings. In this study, we sequenced MAT1 in the heterothallic Dothideomycete fungus Cercospora beticola to gain insight into the reproductive capabilities of this important plant pathogen. In addition to the expected MAT gene at MAT1, each isolate contained fragments of both MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 at ostensibly random loci across the genome. When MAT fragments from each locus were manually assembled, they reconstituted MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 exons with high identity, suggesting a retroposition event occurred in a homothallic ancestor in which both MAT genes were fused. The genome sequences of related taxa revealed that MAT gene fragment pattern of Cercospora zeae-maydis was analogous to C. beticola. In contrast, the genome of more distantly related Mycosphaerella graminicola did not contain MAT fragments. Although fragments occurred in syntenic regions of the C. beticola and C. zeae-maydis genomes, each MAT fragment was more closely related to the intact MAT gene of the same species. Taken together, these data suggest MAT genes fragmented after divergence of M. graminicola from the remaining taxa, and concerted evolution functioned to homogenize MAT fragments and MAT genes in each species.

AB - Dothideomycetes is one of the most ecologically diverse and economically important classes of fungi. Sexual reproduction in this group is governed by mating type (MAT) genes at the MAT1 locus. Self-sterile (heterothallic) species contain one of two genes at MAT1 (MAT1-1-1 or MAT1-2-1) and only isolates of opposite mating type are sexually compatible. In contrast, self-fertile (homothallic) species contain both MAT genes at MAT1. Knowledge of the reproductive capacities of plant pathogens are of particular interest because recombining populations tend to be more difficult to manage in agricultural settings. In this study, we sequenced MAT1 in the heterothallic Dothideomycete fungus Cercospora beticola to gain insight into the reproductive capabilities of this important plant pathogen. In addition to the expected MAT gene at MAT1, each isolate contained fragments of both MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 at ostensibly random loci across the genome. When MAT fragments from each locus were manually assembled, they reconstituted MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 exons with high identity, suggesting a retroposition event occurred in a homothallic ancestor in which both MAT genes were fused. The genome sequences of related taxa revealed that MAT gene fragment pattern of Cercospora zeae-maydis was analogous to C. beticola. In contrast, the genome of more distantly related Mycosphaerella graminicola did not contain MAT fragments. Although fragments occurred in syntenic regions of the C. beticola and C. zeae-maydis genomes, each MAT fragment was more closely related to the intact MAT gene of the same species. Taken together, these data suggest MAT genes fragmented after divergence of M. graminicola from the remaining taxa, and concerted evolution functioned to homogenize MAT fragments and MAT genes in each species.

KW - de-novo identification

KW - sexual reproduction

KW - neurospora-tetrasperma

KW - molecular-organization

KW - fungal pathogens

KW - loci

KW - systems

KW - recombination

KW - resistance

KW - tool

U2 - 10.1016/j.fgb.2013.10.011

DO - 10.1016/j.fgb.2013.10.011

M3 - Article

VL - 62

SP - 43

EP - 54

JO - Fungal Genetics and Biology

JF - Fungal Genetics and Biology

SN - 1087-1845

ER -