The Glycaemic Index-Food-Frequency Questionnaire: Development and Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire Designed to Estimate the Dietary Intake of Glycaemic Index and Glycaemic Load: An Effort by the PREVIEW Consortium

E.M. Brouwer*, A.M. Berendsen, D. Sluik, A.M. van de Wiel, Anne Raben, J.H.M. de Vries, Jennie Brand-Miller, E.J.M. Feskens

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) are indices used to quantify the effect of carbohydrate quality and quantity on postprandial glycaemia. GI/GL-health associations are widely studied but data on the validity of integrated GI/GL measurements are scarce. We evaluated the performance of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) specifically developed to assess GI/GL. In total, 263 Dutch men and 212 women (aged 55 ± 11 years) completed a 58-item GI-FFQ, an 183-item general-FFQ and a 2-day 24 h-recall and donated blood for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) determination. The level of agreement between these methods was evaluated by (1) cross-classification, (2) correlations and (3) Bland and Altman plots. The three dietary assessment methods provided comparable mean intake estimates for total carbohydrates (range: 214–237 g/day), mono/disaccharides (100–107 g/day), polysaccharides (114–132 g/day), as well as bread, breakfast cereals, potatoes, pasta, rice, fruit, dairy, cakes/cookies and sweets. Mean (±SD) GI estimates were also comparable between the GI-FFQ (54 ± 3), general-FFQ (53 ± 4) and 24 h-recalls (53 ± 5). Mean (±SD) GI-FFQ GL (117 ± 37) was slightly lower than the general-FFQ GL (126 ± 38) and 24 h-recalls GL (127 ± 37). Classification of GI in quartiles was identical for the GI-FFQ and general-FFQ for 43% of the population (r = 0.58) and with 24 h-recalls for 35% of the population (de-attenuated r = 0.64). For GL, this was 48% (r = 0.65) and 44% (de-attenuated r = 0.74). Correlations between GI and HbA1c were low (r = −0.09 for GI-FFQ, r = −0.04 for general-FFQ and r = 0.07 for 24 h-recalls). In conclusion, compared to a general-FFQ and 24 h-recalls, the GI-FFQ showed a moderate to good relative validity for carbohydrates, carbohydrate-rich foods and GI/GL. No metric predicted HbA1c.
Original languageEnglish
Article number13
JournalNutrients
Volume11
Issue number1
Early online date20 Dec 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • 24 h-recall
  • Carbohydrates
  • Dietary assessment
  • FFQ
  • Glycaemic index
  • Glycaemic load
  • Validation

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