The first biomanipulation conference: a synthesis.

E.H.R.R. Lammens, R.D. Gulati, M.L. Meijer, E. van Donk

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    58 Citations (Scopus)


    At the First Biomanipulation Conference held in Amsterdam (8-11 August 1989), studies presented considered mainly trophic interactions in lakes, enclosures and laboratory systems. Studies on the interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton emphasized the edibility of the phytoplankton in relation to the zooplankton size structure and the trophic state. Most lake experiments involved 50-100% reduction in fish standing stock or alternatively heavy stocking with piscivorous fish. The most dramatic effects of biomanipulation were found in shallow, eutrophic lakes which exhibited radical changes in ecosystem structure because of changes in light climate and consequently, luxuriant development of macrophytes. There was still much controversy about the top-down effects in relation to trophic state, especially those concerning the role of fish and zooplankton in the development and succession of phytoplankton. Many experiments showed indirect effects within the food web, emphasizing the importance of feedbacks and the complexity of the food web rather than the simplicity of the food chain. The stabilizing effects of refugia for zooplankton and fish on the ecosystem were stressed. Shallow lakes responded generally more rapidly to biomanipulation and this was most successfully accomplished when TP concentration was<50μg l-1, even though in a few cases at 10-20 fold higher TP concentrations (mostly PO4-P lakes) the results achieved could be maintained for two or more summers. For a guaranteed success of the measures an almost complete removal of fish appeared to be indispensible; moreover in many cases removal of benthivorous fish appeared to be even more important than that of planktivorous fish.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)619-627
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 1990


    • benthivores
    • indirect effects
    • phytoplankton: zooplankton interactions
    • piscivores
    • planktivores
    • size-efficiency hypothesis
    • stable states
    • trophic state


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