The effector repertoire of Fusarium oxysporum determines the tomato xylem proteome composition following infection

Fleur Gawehns, Lisong Ma, Oskar Bruning, Petra M. Houterman, Sjef Boeren, B.J.C. Cornelissen, Martijn Rep, Frank L.W. Takken

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Plant pathogens secrete small proteins, of which some are effectors that promote infection. During colonization of the tomato xylem vessels the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) secretes small proteins that are referred to as SIX (Secreted In Xylem) proteins. Of these, Six1 (Avr3), Six3 (Avr2), Six5, and Six6 are required for full virulence, denoting them as effectors. To investigate their activities in the plant, the xylem sap proteome of plants inoculated with Fol wild-type or either AVR2, AVR3, SIX2, SIX5, or SIX6 knockout strains was analyzed with nano-Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (nLC-MSMS). Compared to mock-inoculated sap 12 additional plant proteins appeared while 45 proteins were no longer detectable in the xylem sap of Fol-infected plants. Of the 285 proteins found in both uninfected and infected plants the abundance of 258 proteins changed significantly following infection. The xylem sap proteome of plants infected with four Fol effector knockout strains differed significantly from plants infected with wild-type Fol, while that of the SIX2-knockout inoculated plants remained unchanged. Besides an altered abundance of a core set of 24 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs), each of the four effector knockout strains affected specifically the abundance of a subset of DAPs. Hence, Fol effectors have both unique and shared effects on the composition of the tomato xylem sap proteome.

Original languageEnglish
Article number967
JournalFrontiers in Plant Science
Issue numberNOVEMBER
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Effectors
  • Label free proteomics
  • Pathogenicity
  • Virulence
  • Xylem sap

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