The effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake

N. Zijlstra, M. Mars, R.A. de Wijk, M. Westerterp-Plantenga, C. de Graaf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

171 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Energy-yielding liquids elicit weak suppressive appetite responses and weak compensatory responses, suggesting that liquid calories might lead to a positive energy balance. However, data is often derived from foods differing in many characteristics other than viscosity. Objective: To investigate the effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake in real-life setting and to investigate whether a difference in ad libitum intake is related to eating rate and/or eating effort. Design: In real-life setting 108 nonrestrained subjects (267 years, BMI 22.72.4 kg m-2) received a chocolate flavored liquid, semi-liquid and semi-solid milk-based product, similar in palatability, macronutrient composition and energy density. In laboratory setting 49 nonrestrained subjects (246 years, BMI 22.22.3 kg m-2) received the liquid or semi-solid product. Effort and eating rate were controlled by means of a peristaltic pump. Results: In real-life setting the intake of the liquid (809396 g) was respectively 14 and 30% higher compared to the semi-liquid (699391 g) and semi-solid product (566311 g; P
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)676-683
JournalInternational Journal of Obesity
Publication statusPublished - 2008


  • sugar-sweetened beverages
  • body-weight
  • physical state
  • human-milk
  • satiety
  • humans
  • consumption
  • ratings
  • liquid
  • hunger


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