The effect of type of carbohydrate (starch vs. nonstarch polysaccharides) on nutrients digestibility, energy retention and maintenance requirements in Nile tilapia

Mahmoud N. Haidar, Mischa Petie, Leon T.N. Heinsbroek, Johan A.J. Verreth, Johan W. Schrama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

For Nile tilapia, the energetic value of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) was compared to starch. It was assessed if carbohydrate type (NSP vs. starch) affected the energetic utilization for growth (KgDE) and the energy requirements for maintenance (DEm). Eighteen groups of fish were assigned in 2 × 3 factorial design: two diets, with either a high NSP or high starch content; and three feeding levels (low, medium or satiation). The NSP diet contained 70% of the starch diet supplemented with 30% dried distillers grains with solubles. Nutrients digestibility, nitrogen and energy balances were measured. All nutrients digestibility decreased with increasing feeding level (P < 0.001). Diet type (NSP vs. starch) affected the digestibility of all nutrients except for dry matter and fat. NSP of both diets were digested and the NSP digestibility ranged between 23% and 73%. Averaged over feeding levels, 5% and 17% of the total digestible energy originated from NSP at the starch and NSP diet, respectively. Although the digestible energy intake was similar, the contrast in type of carbohydrates between the diets resulted in lower energy retention with the NSP rich diet (P < 0.05). Despite this impact on energy retention, both DEm and kgDE were not significantly influence by diet. However, DEm was numerically higher (96 vs. 110 kJ kg-0.8 BW d-1) and kgDE was numerically lower (65% vs. 58%) at the NSP diet compared to the starch diet. In conclusion, NSP are digested by Nile tilapia. Digested NSP are less well utilized for growth, which is reflected by a lower energy retention in fish and is due to the slightly higher DEm in combination with a slightly lower kgDE. Statement of relevance: Scarcity of fishmeal and -oil combined with the fast growing aquaculture sector, result in diversification of feed ingredients in fish-feeds. Plant ingredients as protein source become more important, which also increases the dietary carbohydrate content including non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). This paper provides information on the nutritional value of NSP in tilapia. This will eventually lead to improved fish-feed formulations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)241-247
Number of pages7
JournalAquaculture
Volume463
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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digestibility
digestible energy
Oreochromis niloticus
polysaccharide
starch
carbohydrate
polysaccharides
carbohydrates
nutrient
nutrients
diet
energy
feeding level
effect
fish
fish feeds
ingredients
energetics
low calorie diet
feed formulation

Keywords

  • Energy utilization
  • Non-starch polysaccharides
  • Maintenance requirements
  • Fish

Cite this

@article{9a22a514c5714fffb8f01578dcb07c37,
title = "The effect of type of carbohydrate (starch vs. nonstarch polysaccharides) on nutrients digestibility, energy retention and maintenance requirements in Nile tilapia",
abstract = "For Nile tilapia, the energetic value of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) was compared to starch. It was assessed if carbohydrate type (NSP vs. starch) affected the energetic utilization for growth (KgDE) and the energy requirements for maintenance (DEm). Eighteen groups of fish were assigned in 2 × 3 factorial design: two diets, with either a high NSP or high starch content; and three feeding levels (low, medium or satiation). The NSP diet contained 70{\%} of the starch diet supplemented with 30{\%} dried distillers grains with solubles. Nutrients digestibility, nitrogen and energy balances were measured. All nutrients digestibility decreased with increasing feeding level (P < 0.001). Diet type (NSP vs. starch) affected the digestibility of all nutrients except for dry matter and fat. NSP of both diets were digested and the NSP digestibility ranged between 23{\%} and 73{\%}. Averaged over feeding levels, 5{\%} and 17{\%} of the total digestible energy originated from NSP at the starch and NSP diet, respectively. Although the digestible energy intake was similar, the contrast in type of carbohydrates between the diets resulted in lower energy retention with the NSP rich diet (P < 0.05). Despite this impact on energy retention, both DEm and kgDE were not significantly influence by diet. However, DEm was numerically higher (96 vs. 110 kJ kg-0.8 BW d-1) and kgDE was numerically lower (65{\%} vs. 58{\%}) at the NSP diet compared to the starch diet. In conclusion, NSP are digested by Nile tilapia. Digested NSP are less well utilized for growth, which is reflected by a lower energy retention in fish and is due to the slightly higher DEm in combination with a slightly lower kgDE. Statement of relevance: Scarcity of fishmeal and -oil combined with the fast growing aquaculture sector, result in diversification of feed ingredients in fish-feeds. Plant ingredients as protein source become more important, which also increases the dietary carbohydrate content including non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). This paper provides information on the nutritional value of NSP in tilapia. This will eventually lead to improved fish-feed formulations.",
keywords = "Energy utilization, Non-starch polysaccharides, Maintenance requirements, Fish",
author = "Haidar, {Mahmoud N.} and Mischa Petie and Heinsbroek, {Leon T.N.} and Verreth, {Johan A.J.} and Schrama, {Johan W.}",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1016/j.aquaculture.2016.05.036",
language = "English",
volume = "463",
pages = "241--247",
journal = "Aquaculture",
issn = "0044-8486",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

The effect of type of carbohydrate (starch vs. nonstarch polysaccharides) on nutrients digestibility, energy retention and maintenance requirements in Nile tilapia. / Haidar, Mahmoud N.; Petie, Mischa; Heinsbroek, Leon T.N.; Verreth, Johan A.J.; Schrama, Johan W.

In: Aquaculture, Vol. 463, 2016, p. 241-247.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effect of type of carbohydrate (starch vs. nonstarch polysaccharides) on nutrients digestibility, energy retention and maintenance requirements in Nile tilapia

AU - Haidar, Mahmoud N.

AU - Petie, Mischa

AU - Heinsbroek, Leon T.N.

AU - Verreth, Johan A.J.

AU - Schrama, Johan W.

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - For Nile tilapia, the energetic value of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) was compared to starch. It was assessed if carbohydrate type (NSP vs. starch) affected the energetic utilization for growth (KgDE) and the energy requirements for maintenance (DEm). Eighteen groups of fish were assigned in 2 × 3 factorial design: two diets, with either a high NSP or high starch content; and three feeding levels (low, medium or satiation). The NSP diet contained 70% of the starch diet supplemented with 30% dried distillers grains with solubles. Nutrients digestibility, nitrogen and energy balances were measured. All nutrients digestibility decreased with increasing feeding level (P < 0.001). Diet type (NSP vs. starch) affected the digestibility of all nutrients except for dry matter and fat. NSP of both diets were digested and the NSP digestibility ranged between 23% and 73%. Averaged over feeding levels, 5% and 17% of the total digestible energy originated from NSP at the starch and NSP diet, respectively. Although the digestible energy intake was similar, the contrast in type of carbohydrates between the diets resulted in lower energy retention with the NSP rich diet (P < 0.05). Despite this impact on energy retention, both DEm and kgDE were not significantly influence by diet. However, DEm was numerically higher (96 vs. 110 kJ kg-0.8 BW d-1) and kgDE was numerically lower (65% vs. 58%) at the NSP diet compared to the starch diet. In conclusion, NSP are digested by Nile tilapia. Digested NSP are less well utilized for growth, which is reflected by a lower energy retention in fish and is due to the slightly higher DEm in combination with a slightly lower kgDE. Statement of relevance: Scarcity of fishmeal and -oil combined with the fast growing aquaculture sector, result in diversification of feed ingredients in fish-feeds. Plant ingredients as protein source become more important, which also increases the dietary carbohydrate content including non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). This paper provides information on the nutritional value of NSP in tilapia. This will eventually lead to improved fish-feed formulations.

AB - For Nile tilapia, the energetic value of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) was compared to starch. It was assessed if carbohydrate type (NSP vs. starch) affected the energetic utilization for growth (KgDE) and the energy requirements for maintenance (DEm). Eighteen groups of fish were assigned in 2 × 3 factorial design: two diets, with either a high NSP or high starch content; and three feeding levels (low, medium or satiation). The NSP diet contained 70% of the starch diet supplemented with 30% dried distillers grains with solubles. Nutrients digestibility, nitrogen and energy balances were measured. All nutrients digestibility decreased with increasing feeding level (P < 0.001). Diet type (NSP vs. starch) affected the digestibility of all nutrients except for dry matter and fat. NSP of both diets were digested and the NSP digestibility ranged between 23% and 73%. Averaged over feeding levels, 5% and 17% of the total digestible energy originated from NSP at the starch and NSP diet, respectively. Although the digestible energy intake was similar, the contrast in type of carbohydrates between the diets resulted in lower energy retention with the NSP rich diet (P < 0.05). Despite this impact on energy retention, both DEm and kgDE were not significantly influence by diet. However, DEm was numerically higher (96 vs. 110 kJ kg-0.8 BW d-1) and kgDE was numerically lower (65% vs. 58%) at the NSP diet compared to the starch diet. In conclusion, NSP are digested by Nile tilapia. Digested NSP are less well utilized for growth, which is reflected by a lower energy retention in fish and is due to the slightly higher DEm in combination with a slightly lower kgDE. Statement of relevance: Scarcity of fishmeal and -oil combined with the fast growing aquaculture sector, result in diversification of feed ingredients in fish-feeds. Plant ingredients as protein source become more important, which also increases the dietary carbohydrate content including non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). This paper provides information on the nutritional value of NSP in tilapia. This will eventually lead to improved fish-feed formulations.

KW - Energy utilization

KW - Non-starch polysaccharides

KW - Maintenance requirements

KW - Fish

U2 - 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2016.05.036

DO - 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2016.05.036

M3 - Article

VL - 463

SP - 241

EP - 247

JO - Aquaculture

JF - Aquaculture

SN - 0044-8486

ER -