The effect of low temperatures on the toxicity of PERACLEAN Ocean

N.H.B.M. Kaag, A.C. Sneekes

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional


Ballast water treatment systems are routinely tested for efficacy and residual toxicity at spring and summer temperatures in temperate areas, as that is the period when biological production is sufficiently high to match IMO testing requirements (guideline G8). Shipping, however, continues throughout the year and, as polar ice rapidly disappears, also shipping into the Arctic rapidly increases. This makes assessment of the performance of ballast water treatment technology at low temperatures urgent, especially when biocides are used. In order to assess the influence of temperature on the efficacy (toxicity) of PERACLEAN® Ocean (PO), IMARES has tested the toxicity of (PO) to various organisms at standard test temperatures and at low temperatures.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationDen Helder
Number of pages21
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Publication series

NameReport / IMARES Wageningen UR
PublisherIMARES C088/13


  • water ballasting
  • ships
  • water pollution
  • water treatment
  • cold zones
  • ecotoxicology
  • marine areas


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  • Schone schepen (KB-14-005-021)

    Kaag, K.


    Project: LNV project

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