Protein microparticles were formed through emulsification of 25% (w/w) whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions containing various concentrations of calcium (0.0–400.0 mM) in an oil phase stabilized by polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR). The emulsions were heated (at 80 °C) and the microparticles subsequently re-dispersed in an aqueous phase. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed that control particles and those prepared with 7.4 mM calcium were spherical and smooth. Particles prepared with 15.0 mM calcium gained an irregular, cauliflower-like structure, and at concentrations larger than 30.0 mM, shells formed and the particles were no longer spherical. These results describe, for the first time, the potential of modulating the properties of dense whey protein particles by using calcium, and may be used as structuring agents for the design of functional food matrices with increased protein and calcium content.
Westerik, N., Scholten, E., & Corredig, M. (2015). The effect of calcium on the composition and physical properties of whey protein particles prepared using emulsification. Food Chemistry, 177, 72-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.12.095