The Dutch pork sector can be characterized as one massive, homogeneous commodity system, resisting diversification. A closer look at innovation strategies and initiatives leads to the conclusion that efforts are being made to enhance sustainability (including economic viability) through diversification, but the effects on system diversity are small; several initiatives have failed to alter the situation of a uniform commodity system dominating more than 95% of production volume. Explanations for the inertness of the commodity system were found in the lack of vertical integration and the dominance of the existing system ('regime' in innovation theory). Constraints include 'commodity thinking' and self-enhancing processes such as lock-ins.
de Greef, K. H., & Casabianca, F. (2009). The Dutch pork chain: a commodity system resisting threats from the market and society. Outlook on Agriculture, 38(2), 167-174. https://doi.org/10.5367/000000009788632395