The diffusion of Local Agenda 21 in Germany: Comparing the German federal states

K. Kern, C. Koll, M. Schophaus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)


The diffusion of Local Agenda 21 (LA21) appears to have run its course, even in Germany. Starting from Germany's changing international position from laggard to latecomer, this article focuses on a comparison of the German federal states (Lnder) because the percentage of local authorities with LA21 resolutions varies considerably from state to state. The analysis focuses on LA21 diffusion patterns in four Lnder and their driving forces. The comparison demonstrates that LA21 diffusion in the Lnder depended on factors at the local level such as the local authority's capacities and its proximity to pioneering cities, and factors at the state (Lnder) level such as financial and political support of local actions, including the set-up of agenda transfer agencies. Local authorities with greater capacities, located near pioneering cities in states (Lnder) which supported LA21 financially and set up agenda transfer agencies, were more likely to initiate an LA21 process.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)604-624
JournalEnvironmental Politics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2007


  • policy diffusion

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