The development and diversity of green care across Europe

Jan Hassink*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review


In this chapter the development and diversity of green care across Europe is presented. Green care is developing across Europe and has reached different stages of development in different countries. Green care is very diverse across Europe. Diverse in user groups, relation between care and agriculture and type of initiator. We identified different orientations. In Italy and France green care is called social farming and is directed towards labour integration and care inclusion provided by community based organizations like care cooperatives is dominant. In Norway, the Netherlands and Flanders, green care is mainly provided by private family farms being an example of multifunctional agriculture. In Germany, Austria, Ireland, Slovenia and Poland the majority of care farms are community based care services offered by institutional partners. EU countries have adopted diverse regulations affecting the development and direction of green care.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGreen Care
Subtitle of host publicationFor Human Therapy, Social innovation, Rural Economy, and Education
PublisherNova Science Publishers
Number of pages11
ISBN (Print)9781624174797
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • Development
  • Diversity
  • Europe
  • Green care
  • Policy
  • Regulations


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