The determination of ecological quality in shallow lakes - a tested system (EcoFrame) for implementation of the European Water Framework Directive

B. Moss, D. Stephen, C. Alvarez, E. Becares, W. van de Bunt, S.E. Collings, E. van Donk, E. de Eyto, T. Feldmann, C. Fernandez-Alaez, M. Fernandez-Alaez, R.J.M. Franken, F. Carcia-Criado, E.M. Gross, M. Gyllstrom, L. Hansson, K. Irvine, A. Jarvalt, J.P. Jenssen, E. Jeppesen & 29 others T. Kairesalo, R. Kornijow, T. Krause, H. Kunnap, A. Laas, E. Lill, B. Lorens, H. Luup, M. Miracle, P. Noges, T. Noges, M. Nykannen, I. Ott, W. Peczula, E.T.H.M. Peeters, G. Phillips, S. Romo, V. Russell, J. Salujoe, M. Scheffer, K. Siewertsen, H. Smal, C. Tesch, H. Timm, L. Tuvikene, I. Tonno, T. Virro, E. Vicente, D. Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

224 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

1. The European Water Framework Directive requires the determination of ecological status in European fresh and saline waters. This is to be through the establishment of a typology of surface water bodies, the determination of reference (high status) conditions in each element (ecotype) of the typology and of lower grades of status (good, moderate, poor and bad) for each ecotype. It then requires classification of the status of the water bodies and their restoration to at least 'good status' in a specified period. 2. Though there are many methods for assessing water quality, none has the scope of that defined in the Directive. The provisions of the Directive require a wide range of variables to be measured and give only general guidance as to how systems of classification should be established. This raises issues of comparability across States and of the costs of making the determinations. 3. Using expert workshops and subsequent field testing, a practicable pan-European typology and classification system has been developed for shallow lakes, which can easily be extended to all lakes. It is parsimonious in its choice of determinands, but based on current limnological understanding and therefore as cost-effective as possible. 4. A core typology is described, which can be expanded easily in particular States to meet local conditions. The core includes 48 ecotypes across the entire European climate gradient and incorporates climate, lake area, geology of the catchment and conductivity. 5. The classification system is founded on a liberal interpretation of Annexes in the Directive and uses variables that are inexpensive to measure and ecologically relevant. The need for taxonomic expertise is minimized. 6. The scheme has been through eight iterations, two of which were tested in the field on tranches of 66 lakes. The final version, Version 8, is offered for operational testing and further refinement by statutory authorities. Copyright (C) 2003 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)507-549
JournalAquatic conservation: marine and freshwater ecosystems
Volume13
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2003

Fingerprint

typology
ecotype
ecotypes
lakes
lake
water
climate
geology
saline water
cost
body water
surface water
conductivity
water quality
testing
catchment
directive
water body
methodology

Keywords

  • phosphorus transfer-functions
  • trophic structure
  • temperate lakes
  • danish lakes
  • top-down
  • land-use
  • zooplankton
  • management
  • phytoplankton
  • conservation

Cite this

Moss, B. ; Stephen, D. ; Alvarez, C. ; Becares, E. ; van de Bunt, W. ; Collings, S.E. ; van Donk, E. ; de Eyto, E. ; Feldmann, T. ; Fernandez-Alaez, C. ; Fernandez-Alaez, M. ; Franken, R.J.M. ; Carcia-Criado, F. ; Gross, E.M. ; Gyllstrom, M. ; Hansson, L. ; Irvine, K. ; Jarvalt, A. ; Jenssen, J.P. ; Jeppesen, E. ; Kairesalo, T. ; Kornijow, R. ; Krause, T. ; Kunnap, H. ; Laas, A. ; Lill, E. ; Lorens, B. ; Luup, H. ; Miracle, M. ; Noges, P. ; Noges, T. ; Nykannen, M. ; Ott, I. ; Peczula, W. ; Peeters, E.T.H.M. ; Phillips, G. ; Romo, S. ; Russell, V. ; Salujoe, J. ; Scheffer, M. ; Siewertsen, K. ; Smal, H. ; Tesch, C. ; Timm, H. ; Tuvikene, L. ; Tonno, I. ; Virro, T. ; Vicente, E. ; Wilson, D. / The determination of ecological quality in shallow lakes - a tested system (EcoFrame) for implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. In: Aquatic conservation: marine and freshwater ecosystems. 2003 ; Vol. 13, No. 6. pp. 507-549.
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title = "The determination of ecological quality in shallow lakes - a tested system (EcoFrame) for implementation of the European Water Framework Directive",
abstract = "1. The European Water Framework Directive requires the determination of ecological status in European fresh and saline waters. This is to be through the establishment of a typology of surface water bodies, the determination of reference (high status) conditions in each element (ecotype) of the typology and of lower grades of status (good, moderate, poor and bad) for each ecotype. It then requires classification of the status of the water bodies and their restoration to at least 'good status' in a specified period. 2. Though there are many methods for assessing water quality, none has the scope of that defined in the Directive. The provisions of the Directive require a wide range of variables to be measured and give only general guidance as to how systems of classification should be established. This raises issues of comparability across States and of the costs of making the determinations. 3. Using expert workshops and subsequent field testing, a practicable pan-European typology and classification system has been developed for shallow lakes, which can easily be extended to all lakes. It is parsimonious in its choice of determinands, but based on current limnological understanding and therefore as cost-effective as possible. 4. A core typology is described, which can be expanded easily in particular States to meet local conditions. The core includes 48 ecotypes across the entire European climate gradient and incorporates climate, lake area, geology of the catchment and conductivity. 5. The classification system is founded on a liberal interpretation of Annexes in the Directive and uses variables that are inexpensive to measure and ecologically relevant. The need for taxonomic expertise is minimized. 6. The scheme has been through eight iterations, two of which were tested in the field on tranches of 66 lakes. The final version, Version 8, is offered for operational testing and further refinement by statutory authorities. Copyright (C) 2003 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.",
keywords = "phosphorus transfer-functions, trophic structure, temperate lakes, danish lakes, top-down, land-use, zooplankton, management, phytoplankton, conservation",
author = "B. Moss and D. Stephen and C. Alvarez and E. Becares and {van de Bunt}, W. and S.E. Collings and {van Donk}, E. and {de Eyto}, E. and T. Feldmann and C. Fernandez-Alaez and M. Fernandez-Alaez and R.J.M. Franken and F. Carcia-Criado and E.M. Gross and M. Gyllstrom and L. Hansson and K. Irvine and A. Jarvalt and J.P. Jenssen and E. Jeppesen and T. Kairesalo and R. Kornijow and T. Krause and H. Kunnap and A. Laas and E. Lill and B. Lorens and H. Luup and M. Miracle and P. Noges and T. Noges and M. Nykannen and I. Ott and W. Peczula and E.T.H.M. Peeters and G. Phillips and S. Romo and V. Russell and J. Salujoe and M. Scheffer and K. Siewertsen and H. Smal and C. Tesch and H. Timm and L. Tuvikene and I. Tonno and T. Virro and E. Vicente and D. Wilson",
year = "2003",
doi = "10.1002/aqc.592",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
pages = "507--549",
journal = "Aquatic conservation: marine and freshwater ecosystems",
issn = "1052-7613",
publisher = "Wiley",
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}

Moss, B, Stephen, D, Alvarez, C, Becares, E, van de Bunt, W, Collings, SE, van Donk, E, de Eyto, E, Feldmann, T, Fernandez-Alaez, C, Fernandez-Alaez, M, Franken, RJM, Carcia-Criado, F, Gross, EM, Gyllstrom, M, Hansson, L, Irvine, K, Jarvalt, A, Jenssen, JP, Jeppesen, E, Kairesalo, T, Kornijow, R, Krause, T, Kunnap, H, Laas, A, Lill, E, Lorens, B, Luup, H, Miracle, M, Noges, P, Noges, T, Nykannen, M, Ott, I, Peczula, W, Peeters, ETHM, Phillips, G, Romo, S, Russell, V, Salujoe, J, Scheffer, M, Siewertsen, K, Smal, H, Tesch, C, Timm, H, Tuvikene, L, Tonno, I, Virro, T, Vicente, E & Wilson, D 2003, 'The determination of ecological quality in shallow lakes - a tested system (EcoFrame) for implementation of the European Water Framework Directive', Aquatic conservation: marine and freshwater ecosystems, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 507-549. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.592

The determination of ecological quality in shallow lakes - a tested system (EcoFrame) for implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. / Moss, B.; Stephen, D.; Alvarez, C.; Becares, E.; van de Bunt, W.; Collings, S.E.; van Donk, E.; de Eyto, E.; Feldmann, T.; Fernandez-Alaez, C.; Fernandez-Alaez, M.; Franken, R.J.M.; Carcia-Criado, F.; Gross, E.M.; Gyllstrom, M.; Hansson, L.; Irvine, K.; Jarvalt, A.; Jenssen, J.P.; Jeppesen, E.; Kairesalo, T.; Kornijow, R.; Krause, T.; Kunnap, H.; Laas, A.; Lill, E.; Lorens, B.; Luup, H.; Miracle, M.; Noges, P.; Noges, T.; Nykannen, M.; Ott, I.; Peczula, W.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Phillips, G.; Romo, S.; Russell, V.; Salujoe, J.; Scheffer, M.; Siewertsen, K.; Smal, H.; Tesch, C.; Timm, H.; Tuvikene, L.; Tonno, I.; Virro, T.; Vicente, E.; Wilson, D.

In: Aquatic conservation: marine and freshwater ecosystems, Vol. 13, No. 6, 2003, p. 507-549.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The determination of ecological quality in shallow lakes - a tested system (EcoFrame) for implementation of the European Water Framework Directive

AU - Moss, B.

AU - Stephen, D.

AU - Alvarez, C.

AU - Becares, E.

AU - van de Bunt, W.

AU - Collings, S.E.

AU - van Donk, E.

AU - de Eyto, E.

AU - Feldmann, T.

AU - Fernandez-Alaez, C.

AU - Fernandez-Alaez, M.

AU - Franken, R.J.M.

AU - Carcia-Criado, F.

AU - Gross, E.M.

AU - Gyllstrom, M.

AU - Hansson, L.

AU - Irvine, K.

AU - Jarvalt, A.

AU - Jenssen, J.P.

AU - Jeppesen, E.

AU - Kairesalo, T.

AU - Kornijow, R.

AU - Krause, T.

AU - Kunnap, H.

AU - Laas, A.

AU - Lill, E.

AU - Lorens, B.

AU - Luup, H.

AU - Miracle, M.

AU - Noges, P.

AU - Noges, T.

AU - Nykannen, M.

AU - Ott, I.

AU - Peczula, W.

AU - Peeters, E.T.H.M.

AU - Phillips, G.

AU - Romo, S.

AU - Russell, V.

AU - Salujoe, J.

AU - Scheffer, M.

AU - Siewertsen, K.

AU - Smal, H.

AU - Tesch, C.

AU - Timm, H.

AU - Tuvikene, L.

AU - Tonno, I.

AU - Virro, T.

AU - Vicente, E.

AU - Wilson, D.

PY - 2003

Y1 - 2003

N2 - 1. The European Water Framework Directive requires the determination of ecological status in European fresh and saline waters. This is to be through the establishment of a typology of surface water bodies, the determination of reference (high status) conditions in each element (ecotype) of the typology and of lower grades of status (good, moderate, poor and bad) for each ecotype. It then requires classification of the status of the water bodies and their restoration to at least 'good status' in a specified period. 2. Though there are many methods for assessing water quality, none has the scope of that defined in the Directive. The provisions of the Directive require a wide range of variables to be measured and give only general guidance as to how systems of classification should be established. This raises issues of comparability across States and of the costs of making the determinations. 3. Using expert workshops and subsequent field testing, a practicable pan-European typology and classification system has been developed for shallow lakes, which can easily be extended to all lakes. It is parsimonious in its choice of determinands, but based on current limnological understanding and therefore as cost-effective as possible. 4. A core typology is described, which can be expanded easily in particular States to meet local conditions. The core includes 48 ecotypes across the entire European climate gradient and incorporates climate, lake area, geology of the catchment and conductivity. 5. The classification system is founded on a liberal interpretation of Annexes in the Directive and uses variables that are inexpensive to measure and ecologically relevant. The need for taxonomic expertise is minimized. 6. The scheme has been through eight iterations, two of which were tested in the field on tranches of 66 lakes. The final version, Version 8, is offered for operational testing and further refinement by statutory authorities. Copyright (C) 2003 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.

AB - 1. The European Water Framework Directive requires the determination of ecological status in European fresh and saline waters. This is to be through the establishment of a typology of surface water bodies, the determination of reference (high status) conditions in each element (ecotype) of the typology and of lower grades of status (good, moderate, poor and bad) for each ecotype. It then requires classification of the status of the water bodies and their restoration to at least 'good status' in a specified period. 2. Though there are many methods for assessing water quality, none has the scope of that defined in the Directive. The provisions of the Directive require a wide range of variables to be measured and give only general guidance as to how systems of classification should be established. This raises issues of comparability across States and of the costs of making the determinations. 3. Using expert workshops and subsequent field testing, a practicable pan-European typology and classification system has been developed for shallow lakes, which can easily be extended to all lakes. It is parsimonious in its choice of determinands, but based on current limnological understanding and therefore as cost-effective as possible. 4. A core typology is described, which can be expanded easily in particular States to meet local conditions. The core includes 48 ecotypes across the entire European climate gradient and incorporates climate, lake area, geology of the catchment and conductivity. 5. The classification system is founded on a liberal interpretation of Annexes in the Directive and uses variables that are inexpensive to measure and ecologically relevant. The need for taxonomic expertise is minimized. 6. The scheme has been through eight iterations, two of which were tested in the field on tranches of 66 lakes. The final version, Version 8, is offered for operational testing and further refinement by statutory authorities. Copyright (C) 2003 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.

KW - phosphorus transfer-functions

KW - trophic structure

KW - temperate lakes

KW - danish lakes

KW - top-down

KW - land-use

KW - zooplankton

KW - management

KW - phytoplankton

KW - conservation

U2 - 10.1002/aqc.592

DO - 10.1002/aqc.592

M3 - Article

VL - 13

SP - 507

EP - 549

JO - Aquatic conservation: marine and freshwater ecosystems

JF - Aquatic conservation: marine and freshwater ecosystems

SN - 1052-7613

IS - 6

ER -