The crosstalk of far-red energy and signaling defines the regulation of photosynthesis, growth, and flowering in tomatoes

Aida Shomali*, Nuria De Diego, Rong Zhou, Lamis Abdelhakim, Ondřej Vrobel, Petr Tarkowski, Sasan Aliniaeifard, Yousef Yari Kamrani, Yongran Ji, Carl Otto Ottosen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This study investigated the effect of light intensity and signaling on the regulation of far-red (FR)-induced alteration in photosynthesis. The low (LL: 440 μmol m−2 s−1) and high (HL: 1135 μmol m−2 s−1) intensity of white light with or without FR (LLFR: 545 μmol m−2 s−1 including 115 μmol m−2 s−1; HLFR: 1254 μmol m−2 s−1 + 140 μmol m−2 s−1) was applied on the tomato cultivar (Solanum Lycopersicon cv. Moneymaker) and mutants of phytochrome A (phyA) and phytochrome B (phyB1, and phyB2). Both light intensity and FR affected plant morphological traits, leaf biomass, and flowering time. Irrespective of genotype, flowering was delayed by LLFR and accelerated by HLFR compared to the corresponding light intensity without FR. In LLFR, a reduced energy flux through the electron transfer chain along with a reduced energy dissipation per reaction center improved the maximum quantum yield of PSII, irrespective of genotype. HLFR increased net photosynthesis and gas exchange properties in a genotype-dependent manner. FR-dependent regulation of hormones was affected by light signaling. It appeared that PHYB affected the levels of abscisic acid and salicylic acid while PHYA took part in the regulation of CK in FR-exposed plants. Overall, light intensity and signaling of FR influenced plants' photosynthesis and growth by altering electron transport, gas exchange, and changes in the level of endogenous hormones.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108458
JournalPlant Physiology and Biochemistry
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Flowering time
  • Gas exchange
  • Phytochromes
  • Phytohormones
  • Salicylic acid
  • Signaling
  • Stomatal conductance


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