The Cost of Postponement of Bt Rice Commercialization in China

Yan Jin, D. Drabik, N.B.M. Heerink, J.H.H. Wesseler*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


To maintain self-sufficiency in rice production and national food security, the Chinese government strongly supports research that aims at increasing the productivity of rice cultivation. Rice with genetic material from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt rice) is transgenic rice that can reduce lepidopteran pest damage and the use of insecticides. It was developed in the 1990s and earned biosafety certificates in 2009. However, because of political reasons, its commercialization in China has been postponed, and, to date, Bt rice is not grown in China. We assess the opportunity cost of postponement of Bt rice
commercialization in China between the years 2009 and 2019 and consider the external costs of pesticide use and potential technology spill-overs of Bt rice. We estimate the cost of postponement of Bt rice over the analyzed period to be 12 billion United States (US) dollars per year.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1226
JournalFrontiers in Plant Science
Publication statusPublished - 8 Oct 2019


  • Bt rice
  • cost of postponement
  • China
  • technology
  • trade


Dive into the research topics of 'The Cost of Postponement of Bt Rice Commercialization in China'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this