The collapse of turbulence in the evening

B.J.H. van de Wiel, A.F. Moene, H.J.J. Jonker, P. Baas, S. Basu, J. Sun, A.A.M. Holtslag

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperAcademic

Abstract

A common experience in everyday weather is the fact that near-surface wind speeds tend to weaken in the evening, particularly in fair weather conditions. This cessation of wind usually coincides with the collapse of turbulence which leads to a quiet flow near the ground. As the absence of turbulent mixing leads to cold extremes, its prediction is vital for reliable winter temperature forecasts. It is, for example, well-known that unexpected frost events can completely deregulate winter traffic and enhances the risk on calamities (Fig. 1). Yet, the physical explanation behind this phenomenon remained unknown so far. Here, we present a mechanism to explain this intriguing phenomenon by combining extensive observational analysis with new theoretical insights. We detected a remarkable constraint in the kinetic energy of the flow in response to nocturnal cooling. In turn, this results in a limit on the maximum heat that can be transported towards the earth’s surface. When the actual heat loss at the surface exceeds this maximum turbulence cannot survive the intense density stratification. By using this insight, a simple predictive tool is developed. This modeling tool shows to be successful in predicting the cessation of turbulence as observed in a unique data set from a 200m meteorological tower covering 10-years of observations.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the Workshop on Diurnal cycles and the stable boundary layer, Reading, UK, 7-10 November 2011
Place of PublicationReading, UK
PublisherEuropean Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts
Pages197-204
Publication statusPublished - 2012
EventWorkshop on Diurnal cycles and the stable boundary layer, Reading, UK -
Duration: 7 Nov 201110 Nov 2011

Workshop

WorkshopWorkshop on Diurnal cycles and the stable boundary layer, Reading, UK
Period7/11/1110/11/11

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turbulence
turbulent mixing
winter
surface wind
frost
kinetic energy
stratification
wind velocity
cooling
weather
prediction
modeling
temperature
loss
analysis
weather condition
cold
forecast
traffic

Cite this

van de Wiel, B. J. H., Moene, A. F., Jonker, H. J. J., Baas, P., Basu, S., Sun, J., & Holtslag, A. A. M. (2012). The collapse of turbulence in the evening. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Diurnal cycles and the stable boundary layer, Reading, UK, 7-10 November 2011 (pp. 197-204). Reading, UK: European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts.
van de Wiel, B.J.H. ; Moene, A.F. ; Jonker, H.J.J. ; Baas, P. ; Basu, S. ; Sun, J. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. / The collapse of turbulence in the evening. Proceedings of the Workshop on Diurnal cycles and the stable boundary layer, Reading, UK, 7-10 November 2011. Reading, UK : European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, 2012. pp. 197-204
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title = "The collapse of turbulence in the evening",
abstract = "A common experience in everyday weather is the fact that near-surface wind speeds tend to weaken in the evening, particularly in fair weather conditions. This cessation of wind usually coincides with the collapse of turbulence which leads to a quiet flow near the ground. As the absence of turbulent mixing leads to cold extremes, its prediction is vital for reliable winter temperature forecasts. It is, for example, well-known that unexpected frost events can completely deregulate winter traffic and enhances the risk on calamities (Fig. 1). Yet, the physical explanation behind this phenomenon remained unknown so far. Here, we present a mechanism to explain this intriguing phenomenon by combining extensive observational analysis with new theoretical insights. We detected a remarkable constraint in the kinetic energy of the flow in response to nocturnal cooling. In turn, this results in a limit on the maximum heat that can be transported towards the earth’s surface. When the actual heat loss at the surface exceeds this maximum turbulence cannot survive the intense density stratification. By using this insight, a simple predictive tool is developed. This modeling tool shows to be successful in predicting the cessation of turbulence as observed in a unique data set from a 200m meteorological tower covering 10-years of observations.",
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van de Wiel, BJH, Moene, AF, Jonker, HJJ, Baas, P, Basu, S, Sun, J & Holtslag, AAM 2012, The collapse of turbulence in the evening. in Proceedings of the Workshop on Diurnal cycles and the stable boundary layer, Reading, UK, 7-10 November 2011. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UK, pp. 197-204, Workshop on Diurnal cycles and the stable boundary layer, Reading, UK, 7/11/11.

The collapse of turbulence in the evening. / van de Wiel, B.J.H.; Moene, A.F.; Jonker, H.J.J.; Baas, P.; Basu, S.; Sun, J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

Proceedings of the Workshop on Diurnal cycles and the stable boundary layer, Reading, UK, 7-10 November 2011. Reading, UK : European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, 2012. p. 197-204.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperAcademic

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T1 - The collapse of turbulence in the evening

AU - van de Wiel, B.J.H.

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AU - Sun, J.

AU - Holtslag, A.A.M.

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AB - A common experience in everyday weather is the fact that near-surface wind speeds tend to weaken in the evening, particularly in fair weather conditions. This cessation of wind usually coincides with the collapse of turbulence which leads to a quiet flow near the ground. As the absence of turbulent mixing leads to cold extremes, its prediction is vital for reliable winter temperature forecasts. It is, for example, well-known that unexpected frost events can completely deregulate winter traffic and enhances the risk on calamities (Fig. 1). Yet, the physical explanation behind this phenomenon remained unknown so far. Here, we present a mechanism to explain this intriguing phenomenon by combining extensive observational analysis with new theoretical insights. We detected a remarkable constraint in the kinetic energy of the flow in response to nocturnal cooling. In turn, this results in a limit on the maximum heat that can be transported towards the earth’s surface. When the actual heat loss at the surface exceeds this maximum turbulence cannot survive the intense density stratification. By using this insight, a simple predictive tool is developed. This modeling tool shows to be successful in predicting the cessation of turbulence as observed in a unique data set from a 200m meteorological tower covering 10-years of observations.

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van de Wiel BJH, Moene AF, Jonker HJJ, Baas P, Basu S, Sun J et al. The collapse of turbulence in the evening. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Diurnal cycles and the stable boundary layer, Reading, UK, 7-10 November 2011. Reading, UK: European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. 2012. p. 197-204