The burden of cardiovascular diseases among us states, 1990-2016

Gregory A. Roth*, Catherine O. Johnson, Kalkidan Hassen Abate, Foad Abd-Allah, Muktar Ahmed, Khurshid Alam, Tahiya Alam, Nelson Alvis-Guzman, Hossein Ansari, Johan Ärnlöv, Tesfay Mehari Atey, Ashish Awasthi, Tadesse Awoke, Aleksandra Barac, Till Bärnighausen, Neeraj Bedi, Derrick Bennett, Isabela Bensenor, Sibhatu Biadgilign, Carlos Castañeda-OrjuelaFerrán Catalá-López, Kairat Davletov, Samath Dharmaratne, Eric L. Ding, Manisha Dubey, Emerito Jose Aquino Faraon, Talha Farid, Maryam S. Farvid, Valery Feigin, João Fernandes, Joseph Frostad, Alemseged Gebru, Johanna M. Geleijnse, Philimon Nyakauru Gona, Max Griswold, Gessessew Bugssa Hailu, Graeme J. Hankey, Hamid Yimam Hassen, Rasmus Havmoeller, Simon Hay, Susan R. Heckbert, Caleb Mackay Salpeter Irvine, Spencer Lewis James, Dube Jara, Amir Kasaeian, Abdur Rahman Khan, Sahil Khera, Abdullah T. Khoja, Jagdish Khubchandani, Daniel Kim, Dhaval Kolte, Dharmesh Lal, Anders Larsson, Shai Linn, Paulo A. Lotufo, Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek, Mohsen Mazidi, Toni Meier, Walter Mendoza, George A. Mensah, Atte Meretoja, Haftay Berhane Mezgebe, Erkin Mirrakhimov, Shafiu Mohammed, Andrew Edward Moran, Grant Nguyen, Minh Nguyen, Kanyin Liane Ong, Mayowa Owolabi, Martin Pletcher, Farshad Pourmalek, Caroline A. Purcell, Mostafa Qorbani, Mahfuzar Rahman, Rajesh Kumar Rai, Usha Ram, Marissa Bettay Reitsma, Andre M.N. Renzaho, Maria Jesus Rios-Blancas, Saeid Safiri, Joshua A. Salomon, Benn Sartorius, Sadaf Ghajarieh Sepanlou, Masood Ali Shaikh, Diego Silva, Saverio Stranges, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Niguse Tadele Atnafu, J.S. Thakur, Roman Topor-Madry, Thomas Truelsen, E.M. Tuzcu, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja, Tommi Vasankari, Vasiliy Vlassov, Stein Emil Vollset, Tolassa Wakayo, Robert Weintraub, Charles Wolfe, Abdulhalik Workicho, Gelin Xu, Simon Yadgir, Yuichiro Yano, Paul Yip, Naohiro Yonemoto, Mustafa Younis, Chuanhua Yu, Zoubida Zaidi, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Ben Zipkin, Ashkan Afshin, Emmanuela Gakidou, Stephen S. Lim, Ali H. Mokdad, Mohsen Naghavi, Theo Vos, Christopher J.L. Murray

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

276 Citations (Scopus)


Importance: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, but regional variation within the United States is large. Comparable and consistent state-level measures of total CVD burden and risk factors have not been produced previously. Objective: To quantify and describe levels and trends of lost health due to CVD within the United States from 1990 to 2016 as well as risk factors driving these changes. Design, setting, and participants: Using the Global Burden of Disease methodology, cardiovascular disease mortality, nonfatal health outcomes, and associated risk factors were analyzed by age group, sex, and year from 1990 to 2016 for all residents in the United States using standardized approaches for data processing and statistical modeling. Burden of disease was estimated for 10 groupings of CVD, and comparative risk analysis was performed. Data were analyzed from August 2016 to July 2017. Exposures: Residing in the United States. Main outcomes ans measures: Cardiovascular disease disability-Adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results: Between 1990 and 2016, age-standardized CVD DALYs for all states decreased. Several states had large rises in their relative rank ordering for total CVD DALYs among states, including Arkansas, Oklahoma, Alabama, Kentucky, Missouri, Indiana, Kansas, Alaska, and Iowa. The rate of decline varied widely across states, and CVD burden increased for a small number of states in the most recent years. Cardiovascular disease DALYs remained twice as large among men compared with women. Ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of CVD DALYs in all states, but the second most common varied by state. Trends were driven by 12 groups of risk factors, with the largest attributable CVD burden due to dietary risk exposures followed by high systolic blood pressure, high body mass index, high total cholesterol level, high fasting plasma glucose level, tobacco smoking, and low levels of physical activity. Increases in risk-deleted CVD DALY rates between 2006 and 2016 in 16 states suggest additional unmeasured risks beyond these traditional factors. Conclusions and relevance: Large disparities in total burden of CVD persist between US states despite marked improvements in CVD burden. Differences in CVD burden are largely attributable to modifiable risk exposures.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)375-389
JournalJAMA Cardiology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2018


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