The Availability of Slow and Fast Calories in the Dutch Diet: The Current Situation and Opportunities for Interventions

Janet Van Den Boer, Melanie Werts, Els Siebelink, Cees De Graaf, Monica Mars

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Choosing foods that require more time to consume and have a low energy density might constitute an effective strategy to control energy intake, because of their satiating capacity. The current study assessed the eating rate of Dutch food, and investigated the associations between eating rate and other food properties. We also explored the opportunities for a diet with a low energy intake rate (kJ/min). Laboratory data on the eating rate of 240 foods—representing the whole Dutch diet—was obtained. The results show a wide variation in both eating rate (from 2 g/min for rice waffle to 641 g/min for apple juice) and energy intake rate (from 0 kJ/min (0 kcal/min) for water to 1766 kJ/min (422 kcal/min) for chocolate milk). Eating rate was lower when foods were more solid. Moreover, eating rate was positively associated with water content and inversely with energy density. Energy intake rate differed substantially between and within food groups, demonstrating that the available foods provide opportunities for selecting alternatives with a lower energy intake rate. These findings offer guidance when selecting foods to reduce energy intake.
Original languageEnglish
Article number87
Number of pages16
JournalFoods
Volume6
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Oct 2017

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