The application of mobile functional near-infrared spectroscopy for marketing research – a guideline

Caspar Krampe*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Purpose: To advance marketing research and practice, this study aims to examine the application of the innovative, mobile-applicable neuroimaging method – mobile functional near-infrared spectroscopy (mfNIRS) – in the field of marketing research, providing comprehensive guidelines and practical recommendations. Design/methodology/approach: A general review and investigation of when and how to use mfNIRS in business-to-consumer and business-to-business marketing settings is used to illustrate the utility of mfNIRS. Findings: The research findings help prospective marketing and consumer neuroscience researchers to structure mfNIRS experiments, perform the analysis and interpret the obtained mfNIRS data. Research implications: The application of mfNIRS offers opportunities for marketing research that allow the exploration of neural processes and associated behaviour of customers in naturalistic settings. Practical implications: The application of mfNIRS as a neuroimaging method enables the investigation of unconscious neural processes that control customer behaviour and can act as process variables for companies. Originality/value: This is one of the first studies to provide comprehensive guidelines and applied practical recommendations concerning when and how to apply mfNIRS in marketing research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)236-260
Number of pages25
JournalEuropean Journal of Marketing
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Consumer neuroscience
  • Guidelines
  • Marketing
  • mfNIRS
  • Neuroimaging methods
  • Neuromarketing


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