The analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances at ppt level in milk and egg using UHPLC-MS/MS

B.J.A. Berendsen*, F. Lakraoui, L. Leenders, S.P.J. Van Leeuwen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Per- and poly-fluorinated substances (PFASs) are man-made chemicals that have been used for a variety of applications and can end up in the food chain. New opinions on the risk assessment were recently published by the European Food Safety Authority, emphasising the need for more sensitive methods. From this, minimum required LOQs for the analytical method for analysis of milk and egg have been calculated for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and GenX (hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid, HFPO-DA). A fully validated method is described for analysis of 13 PFASs, including PFOA and HFPO-DA, in milk and egg. All compounds, except perfluorodecane sulphonate (PFDS), can be quantitatively determined in these matrices with a trueness ranging from 87% to 119% and a relative within-laboratory reproducibility between 12% and 41%. Also the method proved suitable for confirmation of the identity of the individual PFASs. The LOQ for HFPO-DA in milk and egg is 0.05 ng g−1, well below the calculated required LOQ. For PFOA in egg the determined LOQ is 0.025 ng g−1, nicely below the required level of 0.03 ng g−1. In milk the required LOQ was not achieved: 0.005 instead of 0.003 ng g−1. However, on six out of eight days an LOQ of 0.0025 ng g−1 was demonstrated. It is concluded that the required LOQs are achievable when instrument performance is optimal. The current method can be expanded with long chain PFASs by using a cellulose filter instead of the PTFE filter vials. The presented method was applied for a small-scale study in The Netherlands.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1707-1718
JournalFood Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Issue number10
Early online date27 Jul 2020
Publication statusPublished - 2020


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