Tempe fermentation, innovation and functionality: update into the third millenium

M.J.R. Nout, J.L. Kiers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

177 Citations (Scopus)


Fermented foods represent on average one-third of total food consumption. Tempe is a major fermented soyabean food and is known for its attractive flavour, texture and superior digestibility. This present review aims at providing an overview of literature data from ca 1990 until present. Although traditional preparation methods are still applied at the small scale, commercial production at small and medium industrial scale have resulted in technical innovations for improved control of starters and fermentation conditions. Nevertheless, the monitoring, control and modelling of the tempe fermentation at a large scale still presents a big challenge to process engineers. The complex dynamics of the microbiological composition continuously result in new aspects being resolved including the production of enzymes and bioactive compounds. The use of tempe in food consumption has evolved from the stages of basic nutrition to the development of derived products such as burgers and salads, and in recent years health benefits are becoming an important drive for its consumption.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)789-805
JournalJournal of Applied Microbiology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2005


  • solid-state fermentation
  • soya bean tempe
  • rhizopus-oligosporus sporangiospores
  • potential weaning foods
  • substrate fermentation
  • nutritional quality
  • sensory evaluation
  • water activity
  • polyhydroxylated isoflavones
  • microbiological evaluation


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