T Lymphocyte-dependent and -independent regulation of Cxcl8 expression in zebrafish intestines

Sylvia Brugman*, Merlijn Witte, Rianne C. Scholman, Mark R. Klein, Marianne Boes, Edward E.S. Nieuwenhuis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


CXCL8 is a potent neutrophil recruiting chemokine. CXCL8 is produced by several innate immune cells, including neutrophils, macrophages, as well as epithelial cells. Although previously considered only to be produced as a result of TLR signaling in these cells, recent reports show that T cell-derived cytokines also induce CXCL8 in epithelial cells. Likewise, we observed that T cell inhibition diminished intestinal production of functional mouse homologs of CXCL8 in the early phase of enterocolitis. In this study, we specifically investigated whether adaptive cells contribute to innate cxcl8 expression in the intestines. To this end, we used the zebrafish as our model system. Unlike murine models that lack CXCL8, zebrafish have two CXCL8 chemokines that are both elevated after an acute inflammatory stimulus and recruit neutrophils. Furthermore, zebrafish develop innate and adaptive immunity sequentially, enabling analysis of intestinal cxcl8 expression in the absence (<3 wk of age) and presence (>3 wk of age) of adaptive immunity. In this study, we show that intestinal cxcl8-l1 but not cxcl8-l2 expression is regulated by T lymphocytes under homeostatic conditions. In contrast, during intestinal inflammation especially, cxcl8-l1 expression is upregulated independent of T lymphocyte presence. Furthermore, we show that human CXCL8 is able to induce intestinal zebrafish neutrophil recruitment and cxcl8-l1 expression, demonstrating that zebrafish can be used as a model to study CXCL8 function and regulation. In conclusion, these data provide evidence that Cxcl8-l1 and Cxcl8-l2 are differentially regulated via T lymphocyte-dependent and -independent mechanisms during homeostasis and inflammation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)484-491
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Immunology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes


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