T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in grain and grain-based commodities in Europe: occurrence, factors affecting occurrence, co-occurence and toxicological effects

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    53 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    This paper presents an overview of the occurrence of T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in cereals in Europe and derived food products, factors influencing the occurrence, co-occurrence with other trichothecenes, and toxicological effects of T-2 and HT-2 in human. Of all cereals, oats showed to be most susceptible to T-2/HT-2 contamination. Particularly, oats grown in Scandinavia and UK in the period 2003-2007 were highly contaminated. This contamination has reduced in 2008 and 2009. In raw cereals, T-2 and HT-2 levels were highly correlated with each other in most instances, with the HT-2 level being two to seven times higher than the T-2 level. The toxin levels showed not to be correlated with levels of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol. The occurrence of T-2 and HT-2 in the field varied between years, regions, cereal grain varieties, sowing time, and precrop. Organically produced cereals contained lower T-2 and HT-2 levels as compared to conventionally grown cereals. Little or no effects from using fungicides was seen. Processing cereals resulted in low T-2 and HT-2 levels in food products, although oat products contained some T-2 and HT-2. The by-products from food processing, often used for animal feeding, frequently were highly contaminated. T-2 and HT-2 showed to have high acute and subacute toxicity, as they caused haematotoxic, immunotoxic, cytotoxic, and dermal effects. Carcinogenicity of T-2 and HT-2 in human has not been proven. Outbreaks of human toxicosis caused by trichothecenes, including T-2 and HT-2, have been reported. The present overview is deemed to be valuable for risk assessments at the European level, planned to be held by EFSA. It also provides directions for further research, including the ecology of the fungi responsible for T-2 and HT-2, and agronomical practices to reduce the contamination in the field.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)349-367
    JournalWorld Mycotoxin Journal
    Volume3
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

    Keywords

    • fusarium mycotoxin content
    • in-vitro toxicity
    • human-lymphocytes
    • trichothecene mycotoxins
    • induced apoptosis
    • lymphoid organs
    • t2 toxin
    • mice
    • cells
    • rats

    Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in grain and grain-based commodities in Europe: occurrence, factors affecting occurrence, co-occurence and toxicological effects'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this