System-Wide Hypersensitive Response-Associated Transcriptome and Metabolome Reprogramming in Tomato

D.W. Etalo, I.J.E. Stulemeijer, H.P. van Esse, R.C.H. de Vos, H.J. Bouwmeester, M.H.A.J. Joosten

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40 Citations (Scopus)


The hypersensitive response (HR) is considered to be the hallmark of the resistance response of plants to pathogens. To study HR-associated transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), we used plants that express both a resistance gene to Cladosporium fulvum and the matching avirulence gene of this pathogen. In these plants, massive reprogramming occurred, and we found that the HR and associated processes are highly energy demanding. Ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, hydrolysis of sugars, and lipid catabolism are used as alternative sources of amino acids, energy, and carbon skeletons, respectively. We observed strong accumulation of secondary metabolites, such as hydroxycinnamic acid amides. Coregulated expression of WRKY transcription factors and genes known to be involved in the HR, in addition to a strong enrichment of the W-box WRKY-binding motif in the promoter sequences of the coregulated genes, point to WRKYs as the most prominent orchestrators of the HR. Our study has revealed several novel HR-related genes, and reverse genetics tools will allow us to understand the role of each individual component in the HR.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1599-1617
JournalPlant Physiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • programmed cell-death
  • pathogen pseudomonas-syringae
  • campestris pv. vesicatoria
  • glutathione s-transferases
  • amino-acid catabolism
  • leaf rust resistance
  • higher-plant cells
  • mass-spectrometry
  • cladosporium-fulvum
  • functional-analysis


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