Synthesis Report As part of the project Biodiversity of the High Seas

A.D. Rijnsdorp, E.J. Molenaar, A.G. Oude Elferink, H.J.L. Heessen, C.C. Karman

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional


Human activities in areas outside national jurisdiction (ABNJ) which comprise the high seas and the ‘Area’ (the seabed beyond the limits of national jurisdiction) are increasing and may threaten marine biodiversity in these areas. While fisheries are in general considered as the most threatening, other activities such as mining, shipping, tourism, bio-prospecting, marine scientific research, pollution, and military activities also play more or less important roles. Threats to biodiversity concern different components of the marine ecosystem (e.g. fish, seabirds, marine mammals and benthos), the ocean floor as a habitat, the food chain (functioning of the ecosystem) and ecosystem services (resources and processes supplied by natural ecosystems).
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationIJmuiden
Number of pages24
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Publication series

NameReport / IMARES Wageningen UR


  • marine areas
  • biodiversity
  • marine ecology
  • human activity
  • marine environment
  • environmental impact

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