Swimming-induced exercise promotes hypertrophy and vascularization of fast skeletal muscle fibres and activation of myogenic and angiogenic transcriptional programs in adult zebrafish

A.P. Palstra, M. Rovira, D. Rizo-Roca, J.R. Torrella, H.P. Spaink, J.V. Planas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background The adult skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue with a remarkable ability to adapt to different levels of activity by altering its excitability, its contractile and metabolic phenotype and its mass. We previously reported on the potential of adult zebrafish as a tractable experimental model for exercise physiology, established its optimal swimming speed and showed that swimming-induced contractile activity potentiated somatic growth. Given that the underlying exercise-induced transcriptional mechanisms regulating muscle mass in vertebrates are not fully understood, here we investigated the cellular and molecular adaptive mechanisms taking place in fast skeletal muscle of adult zebrafish in response to swimming. Results Fish were trained at low swimming speed (0.1 m/s; non-exercised) or at their optimal swimming speed (0.4 m/s; exercised). A significant increase in fibre cross-sectional area (1.290¿±¿88 vs. 1.665¿±¿106 µm2) and vascularization (298¿±¿23 vs. 458¿±¿38 capillaries/mm2) was found in exercised over non-exercised fish. Gene expression profiling by microarray analysis evidenced the activation of a series of complex transcriptional networks of extracellular and intracellular signaling molecules and pathways involved in the regulation of muscle mass (e.g. IGF-1/PI3K/mTOR, BMP, MSTN), myogenesis and satellite cell activation (e.g. PAX3, FGF, Notch, Wnt, MEF2, Hh, EphrinB2) and angiogenesis (e.g. VEGF, HIF, Notch, EphrinB2, KLF2), some of which had not been previously associated with exercise-induced contractile activity. Conclusions The results from the present study show that exercise-induced contractile activity in adult zebrafish promotes a coordinated adaptive response in fast muscle that leads to increased muscle mass by hypertrophy and increased vascularization by angiogenesis. We propose that these phenotypic adaptations are the result of extensive transcriptional changes induced by exercise. Analysis of the transcriptional networks that are activated in response to exercise in the adult zebrafish fast muscle resulted in the identification of key signaling pathways and factors for the regulation of skeletal muscle mass, myogenesis and angiogenesis that have been remarkably conserved during evolution from fish to mammals. These results further support the validity of the adult zebrafish as an exercise model to decipher the complex molecular and cellular mechanisms governing skeletal muscle mass and function in vertebrates.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1136
Number of pages47
JournalBMC Genomics
Volume15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Keywords

  • satellite cell
  • gene-expression
  • danio-rerio
  • muscular-dystrophies
  • molecular regulation
  • cluster-analysis
  • axial muscle
  • growth
  • mass
  • atrophy

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Swimming-induced exercise promotes hypertrophy and vascularization of fast skeletal muscle fibres and activation of myogenic and angiogenic transcriptional programs in adult zebrafish'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this