Sustainable development goal 2: Improved targets and indicators for agriculture and food security

Juliana Dias Bernardes Gil*, Pytrik Reidsma, Ken Giller, Lindsay Todman, Andrew Whitmore, Martin van Ittersum

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

153 Citations (Scopus)


The pursuit of global food security and agricultural sustainability, the dual aim of the second sustainable development goal (SDG-2), requires urgent and concerted action from developing and developed countries. This, in turn, depends on clear and universally applicable targets and indicators which are partially lacking. The novel and complex nature of the SDGs poses further challenges to their implementation on the ground, especially in the face of interlinkages across SDG objectives and scales. Here we review the existing SDG-2 indicators, propose improvements to facilitate their operationalization, and illustrate their practical implementation in Nigeria, Brazil and the Netherlands. This exercise provides insights into the concrete actions needed to achieve SDG-2 across contrasting development contexts and highlights the challenges of addressing the links between targets and indicators within and beyond SDG-2. Ultimately, it underscores the need for integrated policies and reveals opportunities to leverage the fulfillment of SDG-2 worldwide.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)685-698
Number of pages14
Issue number7
Early online date28 Sept 2018
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019


  • Country scorecard
  • Malnutrition
  • Obesity
  • Sustainability
  • Zero Hunger


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