Supplementation of piglets with nutrient-dense complex milk replacer improves intestinal development and microbial fermentation

A. de Greeff*, J.W. Resink, H.M.J. van Hees, L. Ruuls, G.J. Klaassen, S.M.G. Rouwers, N. Stockhofe-Zurwieden

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Weaning of piglets causes stress due to environmental, behavioral, and nutritional stressors and can lead to postweaning diarrhea and impaired gut development. The diet changes experienced during weaning require extensive adaptation of the digestive system. A well-developed piglet that had creep-feed experience before weaning performs better after weaning. In the current study, the effect of providing sow-fed piglets with a supplemental nutrient-dense complex milk replacer (NDM) on gut development and growth performance was studied. Litters of sows with similar parities (3.6 ± 0.8) and similar numbers of live born piglets (13.5 ± 0.3) were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: 1 group of piglets had ad libitum access to NDM from Day 2 through 21 after birth, whereas the other group was used as controls. Nutrient-dense complex milk replacer–fed piglets were shown to be significantly heavier after 21 d of supplementation compared with the control piglets. At Day 21, 3 piglets from each litter were euthanized for morphological and functional analyses of the intestinal tract. The small intestines of NDM-fed piglets had significantly higher weights (g) as well as significantly higher relative weight:length ratios (g//cm) compared with the small intestines of control piglets (P <0.05). Morphometric analysis demonstrated that villi length and numbers of goblet cells did not differ between groups. However, NDM-fed piglets had deeper crypts (P <0.001) and an increased expression of the cell-proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen in crypts (P <0.05), suggesting higher cell-proliferation rates. The gene encoding IGF- 1 showed a tendency to higher gene expression in the jejunum from NDM-fed piglets (P = 0.07) compared with the jejunum from control piglets, suggesting that IGF-1 might be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and intestinal growth. Finally, as a result of dietary fiber in NDM, piglets showed significantly increased concentrations of metabolic fermentation products. This suggests differences in metabolic activity in the colon between treatment groups. In conclusion, providing sow-fed piglets with NDM before weaning stimulates intestinal proliferation, leading to increased circular growth. Nutrient-dense complex milk replacer supplementation might, therefore, help piglets through the transition period at weaning by increased BW and increased capacity for uptake of nutrients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1012-1019
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Animal Science
Volume94
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2016

Fingerprint

milk replacer
Weaning
Fermentation
piglets
Milk
fermentation
Food
nutrients
Cell Proliferation
Jejunum
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
weaning
Small Intestine
Weights and Measures
Digestive System
Goblet Cells
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
Dietary Fiber
Growth
Parity

Keywords

  • Circular intestinal growth
  • Gene expression
  • Gut health
  • Nutrient-dense complex milk replacer
  • Pig

Cite this

de Greeff, A., Resink, J. W., van Hees, H. M. J., Ruuls, L., Klaassen, G. J., Rouwers, S. M. G., & Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N. (2016). Supplementation of piglets with nutrient-dense complex milk replacer improves intestinal development and microbial fermentation. Journal of Animal Science, 94(3), 1012-1019. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2015-9481
de Greeff, A. ; Resink, J.W. ; van Hees, H.M.J. ; Ruuls, L. ; Klaassen, G.J. ; Rouwers, S.M.G. ; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N. / Supplementation of piglets with nutrient-dense complex milk replacer improves intestinal development and microbial fermentation. In: Journal of Animal Science. 2016 ; Vol. 94, No. 3. pp. 1012-1019.
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abstract = "Weaning of piglets causes stress due to environmental, behavioral, and nutritional stressors and can lead to postweaning diarrhea and impaired gut development. The diet changes experienced during weaning require extensive adaptation of the digestive system. A well-developed piglet that had creep-feed experience before weaning performs better after weaning. In the current study, the effect of providing sow-fed piglets with a supplemental nutrient-dense complex milk replacer (NDM) on gut development and growth performance was studied. Litters of sows with similar parities (3.6 ± 0.8) and similar numbers of live born piglets (13.5 ± 0.3) were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: 1 group of piglets had ad libitum access to NDM from Day 2 through 21 after birth, whereas the other group was used as controls. Nutrient-dense complex milk replacer–fed piglets were shown to be significantly heavier after 21 d of supplementation compared with the control piglets. At Day 21, 3 piglets from each litter were euthanized for morphological and functional analyses of the intestinal tract. The small intestines of NDM-fed piglets had significantly higher weights (g) as well as significantly higher relative weight:length ratios (g//cm) compared with the small intestines of control piglets (P <0.05). Morphometric analysis demonstrated that villi length and numbers of goblet cells did not differ between groups. However, NDM-fed piglets had deeper crypts (P <0.001) and an increased expression of the cell-proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen in crypts (P <0.05), suggesting higher cell-proliferation rates. The gene encoding IGF- 1 showed a tendency to higher gene expression in the jejunum from NDM-fed piglets (P = 0.07) compared with the jejunum from control piglets, suggesting that IGF-1 might be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and intestinal growth. Finally, as a result of dietary fiber in NDM, piglets showed significantly increased concentrations of metabolic fermentation products. This suggests differences in metabolic activity in the colon between treatment groups. In conclusion, providing sow-fed piglets with NDM before weaning stimulates intestinal proliferation, leading to increased circular growth. Nutrient-dense complex milk replacer supplementation might, therefore, help piglets through the transition period at weaning by increased BW and increased capacity for uptake of nutrients.",
keywords = "Circular intestinal growth, Gene expression, Gut health, Nutrient-dense complex milk replacer, Pig",
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de Greeff, A, Resink, JW, van Hees, HMJ, Ruuls, L, Klaassen, GJ, Rouwers, SMG & Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N 2016, 'Supplementation of piglets with nutrient-dense complex milk replacer improves intestinal development and microbial fermentation', Journal of Animal Science, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 1012-1019. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2015-9481

Supplementation of piglets with nutrient-dense complex milk replacer improves intestinal development and microbial fermentation. / de Greeff, A.; Resink, J.W.; van Hees, H.M.J.; Ruuls, L.; Klaassen, G.J.; Rouwers, S.M.G.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.

In: Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 94, No. 3, 01.03.2016, p. 1012-1019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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T1 - Supplementation of piglets with nutrient-dense complex milk replacer improves intestinal development and microbial fermentation

AU - de Greeff, A.

AU - Resink, J.W.

AU - van Hees, H.M.J.

AU - Ruuls, L.

AU - Klaassen, G.J.

AU - Rouwers, S.M.G.

AU - Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.

PY - 2016/3/1

Y1 - 2016/3/1

N2 - Weaning of piglets causes stress due to environmental, behavioral, and nutritional stressors and can lead to postweaning diarrhea and impaired gut development. The diet changes experienced during weaning require extensive adaptation of the digestive system. A well-developed piglet that had creep-feed experience before weaning performs better after weaning. In the current study, the effect of providing sow-fed piglets with a supplemental nutrient-dense complex milk replacer (NDM) on gut development and growth performance was studied. Litters of sows with similar parities (3.6 ± 0.8) and similar numbers of live born piglets (13.5 ± 0.3) were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: 1 group of piglets had ad libitum access to NDM from Day 2 through 21 after birth, whereas the other group was used as controls. Nutrient-dense complex milk replacer–fed piglets were shown to be significantly heavier after 21 d of supplementation compared with the control piglets. At Day 21, 3 piglets from each litter were euthanized for morphological and functional analyses of the intestinal tract. The small intestines of NDM-fed piglets had significantly higher weights (g) as well as significantly higher relative weight:length ratios (g//cm) compared with the small intestines of control piglets (P <0.05). Morphometric analysis demonstrated that villi length and numbers of goblet cells did not differ between groups. However, NDM-fed piglets had deeper crypts (P <0.001) and an increased expression of the cell-proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen in crypts (P <0.05), suggesting higher cell-proliferation rates. The gene encoding IGF- 1 showed a tendency to higher gene expression in the jejunum from NDM-fed piglets (P = 0.07) compared with the jejunum from control piglets, suggesting that IGF-1 might be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and intestinal growth. Finally, as a result of dietary fiber in NDM, piglets showed significantly increased concentrations of metabolic fermentation products. This suggests differences in metabolic activity in the colon between treatment groups. In conclusion, providing sow-fed piglets with NDM before weaning stimulates intestinal proliferation, leading to increased circular growth. Nutrient-dense complex milk replacer supplementation might, therefore, help piglets through the transition period at weaning by increased BW and increased capacity for uptake of nutrients.

AB - Weaning of piglets causes stress due to environmental, behavioral, and nutritional stressors and can lead to postweaning diarrhea and impaired gut development. The diet changes experienced during weaning require extensive adaptation of the digestive system. A well-developed piglet that had creep-feed experience before weaning performs better after weaning. In the current study, the effect of providing sow-fed piglets with a supplemental nutrient-dense complex milk replacer (NDM) on gut development and growth performance was studied. Litters of sows with similar parities (3.6 ± 0.8) and similar numbers of live born piglets (13.5 ± 0.3) were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: 1 group of piglets had ad libitum access to NDM from Day 2 through 21 after birth, whereas the other group was used as controls. Nutrient-dense complex milk replacer–fed piglets were shown to be significantly heavier after 21 d of supplementation compared with the control piglets. At Day 21, 3 piglets from each litter were euthanized for morphological and functional analyses of the intestinal tract. The small intestines of NDM-fed piglets had significantly higher weights (g) as well as significantly higher relative weight:length ratios (g//cm) compared with the small intestines of control piglets (P <0.05). Morphometric analysis demonstrated that villi length and numbers of goblet cells did not differ between groups. However, NDM-fed piglets had deeper crypts (P <0.001) and an increased expression of the cell-proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen in crypts (P <0.05), suggesting higher cell-proliferation rates. The gene encoding IGF- 1 showed a tendency to higher gene expression in the jejunum from NDM-fed piglets (P = 0.07) compared with the jejunum from control piglets, suggesting that IGF-1 might be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and intestinal growth. Finally, as a result of dietary fiber in NDM, piglets showed significantly increased concentrations of metabolic fermentation products. This suggests differences in metabolic activity in the colon between treatment groups. In conclusion, providing sow-fed piglets with NDM before weaning stimulates intestinal proliferation, leading to increased circular growth. Nutrient-dense complex milk replacer supplementation might, therefore, help piglets through the transition period at weaning by increased BW and increased capacity for uptake of nutrients.

KW - Circular intestinal growth

KW - Gene expression

KW - Gut health

KW - Nutrient-dense complex milk replacer

KW - Pig

U2 - 10.2527/jas.2015-9481

DO - 10.2527/jas.2015-9481

M3 - Article

VL - 94

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JO - Journal of Animal Science

JF - Journal of Animal Science

SN - 0021-8812

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