Previously, we described synergistic adjuvanticity of combinations of synthetic sulfolipo(SL)-derivatives of polysaccharide (SL-polysaccharides) and squalane-in-water emulsions (squalane/W). In this paper, effects of type of polysaccharide and nature of oil on adjuvanticity, reactogenicity and stability are described. SL-derivatives of the following polysaccharides were synthesised: synthetic polysucroses with weight-average molecular weight (MW) of 400,000 (Ficoll400), 70,000 (Ficoll70) and 39,000 Da (Ficoll39), polyfructose of 5,000 Da (inulin), linear polyglucose of 1,200 Da (maltodextrin) and cyclic polyglucose of 1,135 Da (beta-cyclodextrin). The number of sulphate groups per monosaccharide of the different SL- polysaccharides varied between 0.15 and 0.23 and the number of lipid groups per monosaccharide between 1.15 and 1.29. Adjuvant formulations were prepared by incorporating these SL-polysaccharides into oil-in-water emulsions of either squalane, hexadecane, soya oil or mineral oil. Adjuvanticity of the formulations obtained for humoral responses to inactivated pseudorabies virus (PRV) and inactivated influenza virus strains A/Swine (A/Swine) and MRC-11 (MRC-11) in pigs and MRC-11 and ovalbumin (OVA) in mice depended on the type of oil (squalane = mineral oil > hexadecane = soya oil) but not on the type of polysaccharide backbone of the SL-derivative. Reactogenicity assessed by local swelling in mice decreased with decreasing MW (SL-Ficoll400 = Ficoll70 = Ficoll39 > SL-inulin = SL-mattodextrin > SL-cyclodextrin) when combined with squalane and decreased with the type of oil in the following order: squalane > mineral oil > hexadecane > soya oil when combined with SL- Ficoll400. Stability of the SL-polysaccharide/squalane/W emulsions at elevated temperature increased with decreasing MW of the SL-polysaccharide (SL-Ficoll400 < SL-Ficoll70 = SL-Ficoll39 < SL-inulin = SL-maltodextrin = SL- cyclodextrin). SL-cyclodextrin/squalane/W remained stable for > 2.5 years at 4°C, > 18 weeks at 37°C and > 10 days at 60°C. We concluded that reactogenicity and stability but not adjuvanticity of SL- polysaccharide/squalane/W formulations depended on the MW of SL- polysaccharide and that SL-cyclodextrin/squalane/W is a promising non- mineral oil adjuvant as it combines strong adjuvanticity (i.e. better than the mineral oil-based adjuvant presently applied) with low reactogenicity and good stability.
Hilgers, L. A. T., Lejeune, G., Nicolas, I., Fochesato, M., & Boon, B. (1999). Sulfolipo-cyclodextrin in squalane-in-water as a novel and safe vaccine adjuvant. Vaccine, 17(3), 219-228. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-410X(98)00195-9