The therapeutic properties of complex terpenes often depend on the stereochemistry of their functional groups. However, stereospecific chemical synthesis of terpenes is challenging. To overcome this challenge, metabolic engineering can be employed using enzymes with suitable stereospecific catalytic activity. Here we used a combinatorial metabolic engineering approach to explore the stereospecific modification activity of the Artemisia annua artemisinic aldehyde ∆11(13) double bond reductase2 (AaDBR2) on products of the feverfew sesquiterpene biosynthesis pathway (GAS, GAO, COS and PTS). This allowed us to produce dihydrocostunolide and dihydroparthenolide. For dihydroparthenolide we demonstrate that the preferred order of biosynthesis of dihydroparthenolide is by reduction of the exocyclic methylene of parthenolide, rather than through C4-C5 epoxidation of dihydrocostunolide. Moreover, we demonstrate a promiscuous activity of feverfew CYP71CB1 on dihydrocostunolide and dihydroparthenolide for the production of 3β-hydroxy-dihydrocostunolide and 3β-hydroxy-dihydroparthenolide, respectively. Combined, these results offer new opportunities for engineering novel sesquiterpene lactones with potentially improved medicinal value.
- Combinatorial metabolic engineering
- Double bond reductase
- Sesquiterpene lactone
- Sweet wormwood