To assess the subsites involved in substrate binding in Aspergillus niger endopolygalacturonase II, residues located in the potential substrate binding cleft stretching along the enzyme from the N to the C terminus were subjected to site-directed mutagenesis. Mutant enzymes were characterized with respect to their kinetic parameters using polygalacturonate as a substrate and with respect to their mode of action using oligogalacturonates of defined length (n = 3-6). In addition, the effect of the mutations on the hydrolysis of pectins with various degrees of esterification was studied. Based on the results obtained with enzymes N186E and D282K it was established that the substrate binds with the nonreducing end toward the N terminus of the enzyme. Asn186 is located at subsite 4, and Asp282 is located at subsite 2. The mutations D183N and M150Q, both located at subsite 2, affected catalysis, probably mediated via the sugar residue bound at subsite 1. Tyr291, located at subsite 1 and strictly conserved among endopolygalacturonases appeared indispensable for effective catalysis. The mutations E252A and Q288E, both located at subsite 2, showed only slight effects on catalysis and mode of action. Tyr326 is probably located at the imaginary subsite 3. The mutation Y326L affected the stability of the enzyme. For mutant E252A, an increased affinity for partially methylesterified substrates was recorded. Enzyme N186E displayed the opposite behavior; the specificity for completely demethylesterified regions of substrate, already high for the native enzyme, was increased. The origin of the effects of the mutations is discussed.
Pages, S., Heijne, W. H. M., Kester, H. C. M., Visser, J., & Benen, J. A. E. (2000). Subsite Mapping of Aspergillus niger Endopolygalacturonase II by Site-directed Mutagenesis. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 275(38), 29348-29353. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M910112199