Subchronic toxicity and reproduction effects of tri-n-butyltin oxide in Japanese Quail.

T.M.M. Coenen, A. Brouwer, I.C. Eiminga, J.H. Koeman

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A subchronic toxicity/reproduction study was performed in Japanese quails that were fed a diet containing 0, 24, 60, and 150 mg tri-n-butyltin oxide (TBTO) per kg basal diet for 6 weeks. Eggs produced during the 6 weeks of treatment were incubated and hatched, and chicks hatched from eggs collected in weeks 5 and 6 of exposure were reared for 2 weeks. In parent quail, neither diminished food consumption nor any overt toxic or histopathologic signs were observed following exposure to TBTO. A statistically significant decrease in hatchability and increase in percent of chicks found dead in the shell were observed following TBTO exposure at concentrations of 60 and 150 mg/kg food. However, no significant, adverse effects were recorded on total egg production, eggshell thickness and cracked eggs. Blood chemistry parameters of birds measured at the last day of TBTO treatment revealed a statistically significant decrease in serum aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) enzyme activity among both sexes in all treatment groups. In addition, a statistically significant dose-related decrease in serum calcium level was observed in females only, while serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were statistically significantly reduced in male birds in all treatment groups (approximately 50% of the controls).

Moreover, a significant decrease in hepatic microsomal 7-ethoxyresorufin (EROD) activity was recorded in females fed 24 and 60 mg TBTO/kg diet and males fed 60 and 150 mg TBTO/kg diet, whereas pentoxyresorufin-o-deetylase (PROD) activity was only significantly decreased in males fed 150 mg TBTO/kg diet. No TBTO related effects were found on serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), serum total thyroxine (TT4), luteinizing hormone (LH) or retinol levels in both sexes. In summary, TBTO affected mainly reproduction in Japanese quail at a dose where no overt toxicity is observed
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)457-463
JournalArchives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1992


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