Integrated environmental modelling requires coupling sub-models at different spatial and temporal scales, thus accounting for change of support procedures (aggregation and disaggregation). We introduce the R-package spatio-temporal Uncertainty Propagation across multiple scales, stUPscales, which constitutes a contribution to state-of-the-art open source tools that support uncertainty propagation analysis in temporal and spatio-temporal domains. We illustrate the tool with an uncertainty propagation example in environmental modelling, specifically in the urban water domain. The functionalities of the class setup and the methods and functions MC.setup, MC.sim, MC.analysis and Agg.t are explained, which are used for setting up, running and analysing Monte Carlo uncertainty propagation simulations, and for spatio-temporal aggregation. We also show how the package can be used to model and predict variables that vary in space and time by using a spatio-temporal variogram model and space-time ordinary kriging. stUPscales takes uncertainty characterisation and propagation a step further by including temporal and spatio-temporal auto- and cross-correlation, resulting in more realistic (spatio-)temporal series of environmental variables. Due to its modularity, the package allows the implementation of additional methods and functions for spatio-temporal disaggregation of model inputs and outputs, when linking models across multiple space-time scales.
- Input uncertainty propagation
- Space-time ordinary kriging
- Spatio-temporal uncertainty characterisation
- Temporal aggregation