Aim: Evaluation of the thermal and physical conditions for inactivation of adenovirus (AdV), porcine sapelovirus 1 (PSV1) and the economically important viruses porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) in the production of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP). Methods and Results: Citrate-treated porcine plasma of pH 7·5, 9·8 and 10·2 (8·5% dry-matter) was spiked with PEDV, PSV1, PCV2 and AdV and incubated at 3°C for maximum 24 h, and at 44 or 48°C for maximum 10 min (Experiment 1). Spiked citrate-treated concentrated plasma of pH 7·5 and 9·8 (24% dry-matter) was spray dried in a laboratory scale apparatus (Experiment 2). Aliquots of SDPP were stored over a period of 0–10 weeks at 11 and 20°C (Experiment 3). Reverse transcription(RT)-quantitative PCR detected no notable reduction in viral genomes in treated plasma and SDPP samples. No infectious PSV1 was re-isolated from plasma and SDPP samples in cell culture. At pH 10·2 and 3°C, infectivity of PEDV in plasma was reduced with a reduction factor of 4·2 log 10 (LRF) at 10 h contact time, whereas heating to 44°C for at least 1 min at alkali pH was needed to achieve a LRF of 4·2 for AdV. Spray drying at an outlet temperature of 80°C reduced AdV infectivity effectively (LRF = 5·2) and PEDV infectivity for 95% (LRF = 1·4). After storage at 20°C for 2 weeks no infectious PEDV was re-isolated from SDPP anymore (LRF ≥4·0). Due to growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from plasma in cell cultures used for PCV2 isolation, no data regarding inactivation of PCV2 were obtained. Conclusions: Five percent of PEDV stayed infectious after our spray drying conditions. Spray drying in combination with storage for ≥2 weeks at 20°C eliminated infectivity of PEDV effectively. Significance and Impact of the Study: The conditions for inactivation of virus in plasma and SDPP determined are important for producers to inactivate PEDV during production of SDPP.
- porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus
- porcine sapelo virus 1
- spray-dried porcine plasma
- thermal and physical inactivation