Study of the three-way interaction between Trichoderma atroviride, plant and fungal pathogens by using a proteomic approach

Roberta Marra, Patrizia Ambrosino, Virginia Carbone, Francesco Vinale, Sheridan L. Woo, Michelina Ruocco, Rosalia Ciliento, Stefania Lanzuise, Simona Ferraioli, Ida Soriente, Sarah Gigante, David Turrà, Vincenzo Fogliano, Felice Scala, Matteo Lorito*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

149 Citations (Scopus)


The main molecular factors involved in the complex interactions occurring between plants (bean), two different fungal pathogens (Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani) and an antagonistic strain of the genus Trichoderma were investigated. Two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis was used to analyze separately collected proteomes from each single, two- or three-partner interaction (i.e., plant, pathogenic and antagonistic fungus alone and in all possible combinations). Differential proteins were subjected to mass spectrometry and in silico analysis to search for homologies with known proteins. In the plant proteome, specific pathogenesis-related proteins and other disease-related factors (i.e., potential resistance genes) seem to be associated with the interaction with either one of the two pathogens and/ or T. atroviride. This finding is in agreement with the demonstrated ability of Trichoderma spp. to induce systemic resistance against various microbial pathogens. On the other side, many differential proteins obtained from the T. atroviride interaction proteome showed interesting homologies with a fungal hydrophobin, ABC transporters, etc. Virulence factors, like cyclophilins, were up-regulated in the pathogen proteome during the interaction with the plant alone or with the antagonist too. We isolated and confidently identified a large number of protein factors associated to the multi-player interactions examined.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)307-321
Number of pages15
JournalCurrent Genetics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Differential proteins
  • Fungal pathogens
  • Plant
  • Proteomics
  • Three-way interactions
  • Trichoderma

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