Birds can manipulate the offspring sex ratio under natural and experimental conditions. Various factors related to the avian mother, as well as her eggs, have been reported to be linked with the sex determination process. These factors appear to affect the chance of laying a male or female egg resulting in a bias of the offspring sex ratio. This chapter reviews and discusses these factors in different avian species including the chicken. These factors include different gonadal sex steroids, both in the yolk of the egg and in the blood of the hen, as well as different factors related to hen energy balance such as the catabolic hormone corticosterone, hen body condition or hen body mass, and egg mass. In addition to egg mass, the associations of the sex of the embryo with physical parameters of the egg, such as its length and width, will be discussed.
|Title of host publication||Egg Innovations and Strategies for Improvement|
|Publication status||Published - 2017|