Standards, Legislation and Growers Demands as Drivers of Progress in Spray Application technology

J.C. van de Zande, G. Doruchowski, P. Balsari, M. Wenneker

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingAbstract


Over the last decades spraying Plant Protection Products (PPP) has changed. Not so much the process itself, we still bring out water as a carrier to distribute the active ingredient as evenly as possible over crop canopies or fruits. The sprayer itself has not changed much either. It is more the boundary conditions, the environment and the public awareness of PPP on the consumable products that determines how to spray. Technology has given answers to the questions: how to minimise spray drift, how to optimise spray distribution over canopy and how to minimise PPP use to increase product quality. It is in the perspective of these developments that an overview is made of relevant developments in the past and present, and an outlook is given to future developments in fruit crop spraying. The role of environmental legislation (Water Framework Directive, TSSUP), industrial standards (Machine Directive), consumer preferences (healthy fruit, zero residues) and grower’s demands (personal safety, labour, field capacity, low costs) are taken as a guideline to describe these processes. The technological answers are e.g. matching spray volume to tree sizes and shapes which can reduce chemical application, thus reducing operational costs and environmental pollution. Also, tree-specific variable volume precision orchard sprayers, guided by foliage shape and volume (canopy density sprayer; CDS) were developed. Sensor development and the use of sprayer positioning tools linked to mapped tree information from a GIS by RTK-DGPS are presented to show their effects on spray deposition, biological efficacy and spray drift. Based on the need to reduce expensive labour time, future perspectives towards the development of autonomous driving machines are given. Future developments will also focus on monitoring and recording of the activities to assist the fruit industry and give compliance with GLOBALGAP, traceability and farm management systems.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication28th Int Hort Cong, 22 – 27 Aug, Lisbon
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Event28th Int Hort Cong -
Duration: 22 Aug 201027 Aug 2010


Conference28th Int Hort Cong


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