Standard methods for virus research in Apis mellifera

J.R. Miranda, L. Bailey, B.V. Ball, P. Blanchard, G.E. Budge, N. Chejanovsky, Y.P. Chen, L. Gauthier, E. Genersch, D.C. de Graaf, M. Ribiere, E. Ryabov, L. de Smet, J.J.M. van der Steen

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155 Citations (Scopus)


Honey bee virus research is an enormously broad area, ranging from subcellular molecular biology through physiology and behaviour, to individual and colony-level symptoms, transmission and epidemiology. The research methods used in virology are therefore equally diverse. This article covers those methods that are very particular to virological research in bees, with numerous cross-referrals to other BEEBOOK papers on more general methods, used in virology as well as other research. At the root of these methods is the realization that viruses at their most primary level inhabit a molecular, subcellular world, which they manipulate and interact with, to produce all higher order phenomena associated with virus infection and disease. Secondly, that viruses operate in an exponential world, while the host operates in a linear world and that much of the understanding and management of viruses hinges on reconciling these fundamental mathematical differences between virus and host. The article concentrates heavily on virus propagation and methods for detection, with minor excursions into surveying, sampling management and background information on the many viruses found in bees.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Apicultural Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • deformed-wing-virus
  • bee-paralysis-virus
  • queen-cell-virus
  • adult honey-bees
  • real-time pcr
  • reverse-transcriptase pcr
  • picorna-like virus
  • rhopalosiphum-padi virus
  • quantitative rt-pcr
  • messenger-rna quantification

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