Stable isotape ratios of H, C, N an O in Italian citrus juices

L. Bontempo, R. Caruso, M. Fiorillo, G.L. Gambino, M. Perini, M. Simoni, P. Traulo, H.R.M.J. Wehrens, G. Gagliano, F. Camin

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21 Citations (Scopus)


Stable isotope ratios (SIRs) of C, N, H and O have been exensively used in fruit juices quality control (ENV and AOAC methods) to detect added sugar and the watering down of concentrated juice, practices prohibited by European legislation (EU Directive 2012/12). The European Fruit Juice Association (AIJN) set some reference guidelines in order to allow the judging of the genuiness of a juice. Moreover, various studies have been carried out to determine the natural variability of SIRs in fruit juices, but none of these has investigated SIRs extensively in authentic citrus juices from Italy. In this work, about 500 citrus juice samples were officially collected in Italy by the Italian Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies from 1998 onwards. (D/H)I and (D/H)II in ethanol and d13Cethanol, d13Cpulp, d13Csugars, d18Ovegetalwater, d15Npulp, and d18Opulp were determined using Site-Specific Natural Isotope Fractionation-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry, respectively. The characteristic ranges of variability in SIRs in genuine Italian citrus juice samples are here presented as well as their relationships and compliance with the limits indicated by the AIJN and others proposed in the literature. In particular, the Italian range of values was found to be not completely in agreement with AIJN guidelines, with the risk that genuine juices could be judged as not genuine. Variety seems not to influence SIRs, whereas harvest year and region of origin have some influence on the different ratios, although their data distribution shows overlapping when principal component analysis is applied.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)785-791
JournalJournal of Mass Spectrometry
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • fruit juices
  • mass-spectrometry
  • orange juice
  • sugar addition
  • snif-nmr
  • water
  • ethanol
  • irms
  • fructose
  • origin

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