Most conventional foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccines contain oil-adjuvant. Their potency decreases upon prolonged storage. Intact (146S) FMDV particles can dissociate into 12S degradation products with a concomitant decrease in immunogenicity. We therefore measured virion stability in vaccines using two previously developed ELISAs to separately quantify 12S and 146S particles. Virions completely dissociated into 12S particles within 3 months after oil-emulsification. Dissociation occurred at a much lower rate in a comparable aqueous solution that was not oil-emulsified. Thus, oil-emulsification stimulates virion dissociation, presumably due to the protein denaturing effect of the oil–water interface. In real-time stability studies the stability of oil-adjuvanted virions of four different FMDV strains was significantly increased by addition of sucrose and BSA in a synergistic manner. Contrary to BSA addition, the effect of sucrose addition was concentration dependent. This study illustrates the importance of analysing antigen integrity after oil-emulsification and provides methods for FMDV vaccine stabilization.
Harmsen, M. M., Fijten, H. P. D., Westra, D. F., & Dekker, A. (2015). Stabilizing effects of excipients on dissociation of intact (146S) foot-and-mouth disease virions into 12S particles during storage as oil-emulsion vaccine. Vaccine, 33(21), 2477-2484. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.03.066