We compared the species composition, abundance, and cover of sponges in 2 marine lakes (Kakaban Lake and Haji Buang Lake) and adjacent coastal mangroves on the islands of Kakaban and Maratua in the Berau region of Indonesia. We recorded a total of 115 sponge species, 33 of which were restricted to Kakaban Lake, 18 to Haji Buang Lake, and 30 to coastal mangroves on Maratua Island. Only 13 species were shared among all habitats. The 2 marine lakes are located 10 km apart, but their assemblages were more similar to each other than to the bay mangrove systems just 200 to 500 m away. Our results show that marine lakes represent a distinct habitat with significantly higher sponge cover and abundance as well as a markedly different species composition when compared with coastal mangroves. In both lake and coastal mangrove habitats there was a pronounced gradient in composition away from the shore with the primary difference between solid (root or rock) and soft substrate (mud or sand). Each substrate type harbored different sets of species in both lake and coastal mangrove habitats. There was no significant difference in sponge species composition, abundance, or cover between semi-permanent transects sampled in 2008 and 2009. We show for the first time that mangroves in the Indo-Pacific harbor a diverse array of sponge species and, further, that marine lakes harbor numerous unique species hitherto unknown to science.
- spermonde archipelago
- neighbor matrices
- east kalimantan
- beta diversity
Becking, L. E., Cleary, D. F. R., & de Voogd, N. J. (2013). Sponge species composition, abundance, and cover in marine lakes and coastal mangroves in Berau, Indonesia. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 481, 105-120. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10155