Specific Hypersensitive Response–Associated Recognition of New Apoplastic Effectors from Cladosporium fulvum in Wild Tomato

Carl H. Mesarich*, Bilal Ӧkmen, Hanna Rovenich, Scott A. Griffiths, Changchun Wang, Mansoor Karimi Jashni, Aleksandar Mihajlovski, Jérôme Collemare, Lukas Hunziker, Cecilia H. Deng, Ate Van Der Burgt, Henriek G. Beenen, Matthew D. Templeton, Rosie E. Bradshaw, Pierre J.G.M. De Wit

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


Tomato leaf mold disease is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum. During infection, C. fulvum produces extracellular small secreted protein (SSP) effectors that function to promote colonization of the leaf apoplast. Resistance to the disease is governed by Cf immune receptor genes that encode receptor-like proteins (RLPs). These RLPs recognize specific SSP effectors to initiate a hypersensitive response (HR) that renders the pathogen avirulent. C. fulvum strains capable of overcoming one or more of all cloned Cf genes have now emerged. To combat these strains, new Cf genes are required. An effectoromics approach was employed to identify wild tomato accessions carrying new Cf genes. Proteomics and transcriptome sequencing were first used to identify 70 apoplastic in planta–induced C. fulvum SSPs. Based on sequence homology, 61 of these SSPs were novel or lacked known functional domains. Seven, however, had predicted structural homology to antimicrobial proteins, suggesting a possible role in mediating antagonistic microbe-microbe interactions in planta. Wild tomato accessions were then screened for HR-associated recognition of 41 SSPs, using the Potato virus X–based transient expression system. Nine SSPs were recognized by one or more accessions, suggesting that these plants carry new Cf genes available for incorporation into cultivated tomato.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-162
JournalMolecular Plant-Microbe Interactions
Issue number1
Early online date16 Nov 2017
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2018


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