Spatial distribution, source apportionment, and ecological risk assessment of elements (PTEs, REEs, and ENs) in the surface soil of shiraz city (Iran) under different land-use types

Ebrahim Hoshyari, Nasrin Hassanzadeh*, Behnam Keshavarzi, Nematollah Jaafarzadeh, Mahrooz Rezaei

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this study, 100 samples were collected from the topsoil of different land-use types (urban, industrial and agricultural) in Shiraz. The content of 26 elements was analyzed. CF, EF, Igeo, NPI, and PLI indices were used to evaluate soil pollution. Ecological risk assessment of metals was calculated by using Er and RI indexes. PCA analysis and the PMF model were used to determine the source of metals in soil. Also, the spatial distribution of metals and risk index were plotted using inverse distance weighting (IDW) with ArcGIS software (10.3). The metal concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.2067 ± 0.0946 (Ag) to 85,673.50 ± 4689.27 (Ca) mg kg−1. The results show that all elements' Concentration in soils was lower than the DOE level. The mean concentration of All rare earth elements (REEs) was lower than WSA and ECM values. Hotspot points pollution of some metals such as Pb, Cd, and Ni are located in high-traffic parts of the urban area. Otherwise, hot spot points of As pollution are located in industrial sample points. Results of indexes show that Sb in urban and agricultural soils have highe mean values of CF (6.75 and 6.85) and Iegeo (2.17 and 2.13), respectively. In industrial soils, S has highe mean values of CF (14.95), EF (100.26), and Igeo (2.95). The PLI index shows that REEs (PLI <1) have no pollution, but PTEs and ENs have pollution (PLI >1). The mean Er, value shows that Sb (127.33) and Cd (104) have significant risk among metals. PCA and PMF models show that The main sources of elements in shiraz soil are vehicularly emitted, fertilizer use, sewage irrigation, atmospheric deposition, and parent material. Generally, results show that Most of the study area has considerable risk, especially concerning PTEs. So, it is recommended to pay more attention to the issue of traffic in the urban environment in to improve the state of the urban area.
Original languageEnglish
Article number137045
JournalChemosphere
Volume311
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023

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