Soybean meal induces intestinal inflammation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

P. Urán, A. Gonçalves, J.J. Taverne-Thiele, J.W. Schrama, J.A.J. Verreth, J.H.W.M. Rombout

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171 Citations (Scopus)


The development of soybean meal (SBM) induced enteritis in the hindgut of the omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The developed condition was assessed when carp, continuously fed on animal protein, were transferred to a diet in which 20% of the protein was replaced by SBM. After week 1, most of the inflammation parameters were already present, but at week 3, a strong aggravation of the condition was observed which included a shortening of the mucosal folds, the disappearance of the supranuclear vacuoles, an increased number of goblet cells, a thickened lamina propria and sub-epithelial mucosa with increased numbers of basophilic granulocytes as well as a decreased uptake capacity of enterocytes (impaired endocytosis and microvilli). Contrary to previous observations made with respect to Atlantic salmon, common carp start to recover from the fourth to the fifth week after switching to SBM feeding. At this stage, the supranuclear vacuoles refill and most of the parameters revert to basal levels. During the enteritis process, a real-time quantitative PCR analysis was conducted to measure the expression of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes in the isolated intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). The pro-inflammatory interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and tumour necrosis factor ¿1 (TNF-¿1) genes were up-regulated during the inflammation process while the anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10) was down-regulated after an initial up-regulation at week 1. Transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) expression showed an up-regulation from week 3 onwards despite the high Ct value and the low primer efficiency shown. This study confirms the contribution of IEL (mainly T-like cells) and basophils in the enteritis process. In addition, the results show a clear involvement of up- and down-regulated cytokine genes in both the onset and recovery of the SBM-induced enteritis in the hindgut of carp.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)751-760
JournalFish and Shellfish Immunology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2008


  • salmon salmo-salar
  • trout oncorhynchus-mykiss
  • atlantic salmon
  • distal intestine
  • rainbow-trout
  • immunocytochemical localization
  • induced enteritis
  • expression
  • histology
  • immune

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