An approach based upon sonication–microfluidics is presented to fabricate nanoparticle-coated microbubbles. The gas-in-liquid slug flow formed in a microchannel is subjected to ultrasound, leading to cavitation at the gas–liquid interface. Therefore, microbubbles are formed and then stabilized by the nanoparticles contained in the liquid. Compared to the conventional sonication method, this sonication–microfluidics continuous flow approach has unlimited gas nuclei for cavitation that yields continuous production of foam with shorter residence time. By controlling the flow rate ratios of the gas to the liquid, this method also achieves a higher production volume, smaller bubble size, and less waste of the nanoparticles needed to stabilize the microbubbles.
- flow-focusing device
- contrast agents