Solute inclusion during progressive freeze concentration: A state diagram approach

Jan Eise Vuist, Maarten A.I. Schutyser*, Remko M. Boom

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


We propose a conceptual model for progressive freeze concentration, which predicts solute loss through inclusion in the ice based on the system's phase behaviour as illustrated in a state diagram. We compare the outcomes of the model for sodium chloride, sucrose, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). For ice growth rates in the order 10−2 μm/s there was no solute inclusion for sodium chloride or sucrose, but above this range, local super-cooling gives rise to a freezing zone. In this freezing zone ice and solution co-exist and the resulting uneven advancement of the ice causes inclusions. The model predicts that for macromolecular solutions such as BSA, no inclusion will take place through the proposed mechanism.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110928
JournalJournal of Food Engineering
Publication statusPublished - May 2022


  • Dewatering
  • Progressive freeze concentration
  • Solute inclusion
  • State diagram


Dive into the research topics of 'Solute inclusion during progressive freeze concentration: A state diagram approach'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this