Soil resistance and recovery during Neotropical forest succession

Masha T. van der Sande, Jennifer S. Powers, Thom W. Kuyper, Natalia Norden, Beatriz Salgado-Negret, Jarcilene Silva de Almeida, F. Bongers, Diego Delgado, Daisy H. Dent, Géraldine Derroire, Mário Marcos do Espírito Santo, Juan M. Dupuy, Geraldo Wilson Fernandes, Bryan Finegan, Mayra E. Gavito, José Luis Hernández-Stefanoni, Catarina C. Jakovac, Isabel L. Jones, Maria das Dores Magalhães Veloso, Jorge A. MeaveFrancisco Mora, Rodrigo Muñoz, Nathalia Pérez-Cárdenas, Daniel Piotto, Esteban Álvarez-Dávila, Yasmani Caceres-Siani, Coralie Dalban-Pilon, Aurélie Dourdain, Dan V. Du, Daniel García-Villalobos, Yule Roberta Ferreira Nunes, Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa, L. Poorter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The recovery of soil conditions is crucial for successful ecosystem restoration and, hence, for achieving the goals of the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration. Here, we assess how soils resist forest conversion and agricultural land use, and how soils recover during subsequent tropical forest succession on abandoned agricultural fields. Our overarching question is how soil resistance and recovery depend on local conditions such as climate, soil type, and land-use history. For 300 plots in 21 sites across the Neotropics, we used a chonosequence approach in which we sampled soils from two depths in old-growth forests, agricultural fields (i.e., crop fields and pastures), and secondary forests that differ in age (1-95 years) since abandonment. We measured six soil properties using a standardized sampling design and lab analyses.
Soil resistance strongly depended on local conditions. Croplands and sites on high-activity clay (i.e. high fertility) show strong increases in bulk density, and decreases in pH, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) during deforestation and subsequent agricultural use. Resistance is lower in such sites probably because of a sharp decline in fine root biomass in croplands in the upper soil layers, and a decline in litter input from formerly productive old-growth forest (on high-activity clays). Soil recovery also strongly depended on local conditions. During forest succession, high-activity clays and croplands decreased most strongly in bulk density and increased in C and N, possibly because of strongly compacted soils with low C and N after cropland abandonment, and because of rapid vegetation recovery in high-activity clays leading to greater fine root growth and litter input. Furthermore, sites at low precipitation decreased in pH, whereas sites at high precipitation increased in N and decreased in C:N ratio. Extractable phosphorus (P) did not recover during succession, suggesting increased P limitation as forests age. These results indicate that no single solution exists for effective soil restoration, and that local site conditions should determine the restoration strategies.
Original languageEnglish
Article number20210074
Number of pages14
JournalPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences
Volume378
Issue number1867
Early online date14 Nov 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2023

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