Soil organic matter: chemistry and physical characteristics and analytical methods. A review

C.M. Branco de Freitas Maia, E.H. Novotny, T. Francischinelli Rittl, M.H. Bermingham Hayes

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18 Citations (Scopus)


Soil organic matter (SOM) holds a prominent place among the many indicators that are studied in relation to soil function. Different viewpoints are reflected in characterizing SOM, depending on the study procedures used, or the focus of the researchers. There are many possibilities for the isolation and fractionation of SOM and this has led to a plurality of interpretations and conclusions. Transformations to organic materials that lead to the more recalcitrant components of SOM are outlined, and the associations which these materials can have in the soil environment, and aspects of their compositions are referred to. A review is given of the organic matter pools in soils, of their functions, and of the controls which they have in soil systems. A succinct review is given of physical fractionation procedures for SOM. This approach is highly relevant, though rarely used in modern studies of SOM. The merits and demerits of wet oxidation procedures, relative to dry combustion for determining soil organic carbon contents are discussed, and reference is made to the emerging chemometric techniques based on the use of Near (NIR) and Mid (MIR) infrared spectroscopy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2985-2990
JournalCurrent Organic Chemistry
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • nuclear-magnetic-resonance
  • black carbon
  • humic substances
  • reflectance spectroscopy
  • light fraction
  • amazon region
  • sediments
  • acids
  • charcoal
  • forest


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